The short telomere syndromes encompass a spectrum of clinical manifestations that present from infancy to late adulthood. They are caused by mutations in telomerase and other telomere maintenance genes and have a predominantly degenerative phenotype characterized by organ failure across multiple systems. They are collectively one of the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndromes; however, their most prevalent presentations are extrahematopoietic. This review focuses on these common nonhematologic complications, including pulmonary fibrosis, liver pathology, and immunodeficiency. The short telomere syndrome diagnosis informs clinical care, especially in guiding diagnostic evaluations as well as in the solid organ transplant setting. Early recognition allows an individualized approach to screening and management. This review illustrates a myriad of extrahematopoietic presentations of short telomere syndromes and how they impact clinical decisions.
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