Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in an older population

A prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

Thierry Comlan Marc Medehouenou, Pierre Ayotte, Pierre Hugues Carmichael, Edeltraut Kröger, René Verreault, Joan Lindsay, Éric Dewailly, Suzanne L. Tyas, Alexandre Bureau, Danielle Laurin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Little attention has been paid to neurotoxicants on the risk of dementia. Exposure to known neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is suspected to have adverse cognitive effects in older populations. Objective: To assess whether plasma concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides are associated with the risk of cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of all-cause dementia in the Canadian older population. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a 3-phase, 10-year population-based study of individuals aged 65+ years. Analyses included 669 clinically assessed subjects, of which 156 developed dementia including 108 incident cases of AD. Subjects were screened at each phase with the 100-point Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), a measurement of global cognitive function. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards model when the outcome was dementia or AD, and a repeated-measure mixed model when the outcome was the 3MS score. Results: No association of PCB and OC pesticides with the risk of dementia and AD was observed. Elevated concentrations of PCB congeners nos 118, 153, 156, 163, and OC pesticides 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) were significantly associated with cognitive decline as assessed with the 3MS. A posteriori analyses suggested that only p,p'-DDE was significantly related to a higher cognitive decline in time based on the 3MS among incident cases of dementia compared to subjects remaining nondemented. Conclusion: PCB and OC pesticide plasma concentrations were not related to the incident diagnosis of neither dementia, nor AD. Using the 3MS scores as the outcome, higher concentrations of four PCB congeners and two OC pesticides were associated with lower cognitive performances in subjects. The association of p,p'-DDE with cognitive decline in time in incident cases of dementia merits further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number57
JournalEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 14 2019

Fingerprint

Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Pesticides
Dementia
Alzheimer Disease
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene
Health
Population
DDT
Cognitive Dysfunction
Proportional Hazards Models
Cognition

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Cognitive decline
  • Dementia
  • Organochlorine pesticide
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in an older population : A prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. / Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; Carmichael, Pierre Hugues; Kröger, Edeltraut; Verreault, René; Lindsay, Joan; Dewailly, Éric; Tyas, Suzanne L.; Bureau, Alexandre; Laurin, Danielle.

In: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, Vol. 18, No. 1, 57, 14.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc ; Ayotte, Pierre ; Carmichael, Pierre Hugues ; Kröger, Edeltraut ; Verreault, René ; Lindsay, Joan ; Dewailly, Éric ; Tyas, Suzanne L. ; Bureau, Alexandre ; Laurin, Danielle. / Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in an older population : A prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. In: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 2019 ; Vol. 18, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Little attention has been paid to neurotoxicants on the risk of dementia. Exposure to known neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is suspected to have adverse cognitive effects in older populations. Objective: To assess whether plasma concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides are associated with the risk of cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of all-cause dementia in the Canadian older population. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a 3-phase, 10-year population-based study of individuals aged 65+ years. Analyses included 669 clinically assessed subjects, of which 156 developed dementia including 108 incident cases of AD. Subjects were screened at each phase with the 100-point Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), a measurement of global cognitive function. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards model when the outcome was dementia or AD, and a repeated-measure mixed model when the outcome was the 3MS score. Results: No association of PCB and OC pesticides with the risk of dementia and AD was observed. Elevated concentrations of PCB congeners nos 118, 153, 156, 163, and OC pesticides 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) were significantly associated with cognitive decline as assessed with the 3MS. A posteriori analyses suggested that only p,p'-DDE was significantly related to a higher cognitive decline in time based on the 3MS among incident cases of dementia compared to subjects remaining nondemented. Conclusion: PCB and OC pesticide plasma concentrations were not related to the incident diagnosis of neither dementia, nor AD. Using the 3MS scores as the outcome, higher concentrations of four PCB congeners and two OC pesticides were associated with lower cognitive performances in subjects. The association of p,p'-DDE with cognitive decline in time in incident cases of dementia merits further investigation.",
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AU - Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc

AU - Ayotte, Pierre

AU - Carmichael, Pierre Hugues

AU - Kröger, Edeltraut

AU - Verreault, René

AU - Lindsay, Joan

AU - Dewailly, Éric

AU - Tyas, Suzanne L.

AU - Bureau, Alexandre

AU - Laurin, Danielle

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N2 - Background: Little attention has been paid to neurotoxicants on the risk of dementia. Exposure to known neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is suspected to have adverse cognitive effects in older populations. Objective: To assess whether plasma concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides are associated with the risk of cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of all-cause dementia in the Canadian older population. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a 3-phase, 10-year population-based study of individuals aged 65+ years. Analyses included 669 clinically assessed subjects, of which 156 developed dementia including 108 incident cases of AD. Subjects were screened at each phase with the 100-point Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), a measurement of global cognitive function. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards model when the outcome was dementia or AD, and a repeated-measure mixed model when the outcome was the 3MS score. Results: No association of PCB and OC pesticides with the risk of dementia and AD was observed. Elevated concentrations of PCB congeners nos 118, 153, 156, 163, and OC pesticides 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) were significantly associated with cognitive decline as assessed with the 3MS. A posteriori analyses suggested that only p,p'-DDE was significantly related to a higher cognitive decline in time based on the 3MS among incident cases of dementia compared to subjects remaining nondemented. Conclusion: PCB and OC pesticide plasma concentrations were not related to the incident diagnosis of neither dementia, nor AD. Using the 3MS scores as the outcome, higher concentrations of four PCB congeners and two OC pesticides were associated with lower cognitive performances in subjects. The association of p,p'-DDE with cognitive decline in time in incident cases of dementia merits further investigation.

AB - Background: Little attention has been paid to neurotoxicants on the risk of dementia. Exposure to known neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is suspected to have adverse cognitive effects in older populations. Objective: To assess whether plasma concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides are associated with the risk of cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of all-cause dementia in the Canadian older population. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a 3-phase, 10-year population-based study of individuals aged 65+ years. Analyses included 669 clinically assessed subjects, of which 156 developed dementia including 108 incident cases of AD. Subjects were screened at each phase with the 100-point Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), a measurement of global cognitive function. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards model when the outcome was dementia or AD, and a repeated-measure mixed model when the outcome was the 3MS score. Results: No association of PCB and OC pesticides with the risk of dementia and AD was observed. Elevated concentrations of PCB congeners nos 118, 153, 156, 163, and OC pesticides 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) were significantly associated with cognitive decline as assessed with the 3MS. A posteriori analyses suggested that only p,p'-DDE was significantly related to a higher cognitive decline in time based on the 3MS among incident cases of dementia compared to subjects remaining nondemented. Conclusion: PCB and OC pesticide plasma concentrations were not related to the incident diagnosis of neither dementia, nor AD. Using the 3MS scores as the outcome, higher concentrations of four PCB congeners and two OC pesticides were associated with lower cognitive performances in subjects. The association of p,p'-DDE with cognitive decline in time in incident cases of dementia merits further investigation.

KW - Alzheimer's disease

KW - Cognitive decline

KW - Dementia

KW - Organochlorine pesticide

KW - Polychlorinated biphenyl

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