Several methodological issues have been identified in analysis of epidemiological data to better assess the distributional effects of exposures and hypotheses about effect modification. We discuss the hierarchical mixed model and some more complex methods. Methods of capturing inequality are a second dimension of risk assessment, and simulation studies are important because plausible choices for air pollution effects and effect modifiers could result in extremely high risks in a small subset of the population. Future epidemiological studies should explore contextual and individual-level factors that might modify these relationships. The Environmental Protection Agency should make this a standard part of their risk assessments whenever the necessary information is available.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health