Exosomes

D. Michiel Pegtel, Stephen J Gould

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Exosomes are small, single-membrane, secreted organelles of ∼30 to ∼200 nm in diameter that have the same topology as the cell and are enriched in selected proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and glycoconjugates. Exosomes contain an array of membrane-associated, high-order oligomeric protein complexes, display pronounced molecular heterogeneity, and are created by budding at both plasma and endosome membranes. Exosome biogenesis is a mechanism of protein quality control, and once released, exosomes have activities as diverse as remodeling the extracellular matrix and transmitting signals and molecules to other cells. This pathway of intercellular vesicle traffic plays important roles in many aspects of human health and disease, including development, immunity, tissue homeostasis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, viruses co-opt exosome biogenesis pathways both for assembling infectious particles and for establishing host permissiveness. On the basis of these and other properties, exosomes are being developed as therapeutic agents in multiple disease models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)487-514
Number of pages28
JournalAnnual review of biochemistry
Volume88
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2019

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Exosomes
Membranes
Tissue homeostasis
Neurodegenerative diseases
Proteins
Glycoconjugates
Viruses
Nucleic Acids
Quality control
Display devices
Permissiveness
Topology
Health
Lipids
Plasmas
Molecules
Endosomes
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Quality Control
Organelles

Keywords

  • aggregation
  • budding
  • cancer
  • cell biology
  • extracellular vesicle
  • immunity
  • microvesicle
  • neurodegeneration
  • protein oligomerization
  • protein trafficking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Exosomes. / Pegtel, D. Michiel; Gould, Stephen J.

In: Annual review of biochemistry, Vol. 88, 20.06.2019, p. 487-514.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pegtel, D. Michiel ; Gould, Stephen J. / Exosomes. In: Annual review of biochemistry. 2019 ; Vol. 88. pp. 487-514.
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