Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma typically incorporates multiagent chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, autologous stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy, and differentiation therapy. The discovery of activating mutations in ALK receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) in ∼8% of neuroblastomas opens the possibility of further improving outcomes for this subset of patients with the addition of ALK inhibitors. ALK inhibitors have shown efficacy in tumors such as non-small-cell lung cancer and anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which wild-type ALK overexpression is driven by translocation events. In contrast, ALK mutations driving neuroblastomas are missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain yielding constitutive activation and differing sensitivity to available ALK inhibitors. We describe a case of a patient with relapsed, refractory, metastatic ALK F1174L-mutated neuroblastoma who showed no response to the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib but had a subsequent complete response to the ALK/ROS1 inhibitor lorlatinib. The patient’s disease relapsed after 13 mo of treatment. Sequencing of cell-free DNA at the time of relapse pointed toward a potential mechanism of acquired lorlatinib resistance: amplification of CDK4 and FGFR1 and a NRAS Q61K mutation. We review the literature regarding differing sensitivity of ALK mutations found in neuroblastoma to current FDA-approved ALK inhibitors and known pathways of acquired resistance. Our report adds to the literature of important correlations between neuroblastoma ALK mutation status and clinical responsiveness to ALK inhibitors. It also highlights the importance of understanding acquired mechanisms of resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine