We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, social cohesion and safety and features of the diurnal cortisol curve including: area under the curve (AUC), wake-to-bed slope, wake-up, cortisol awakening response (CAR, wake-up to 30. min post-awakening), early decline (30. min to 2. h post-awakening) and late decline (2. h post-awakening to bed time). In cross-sectional analyses, higher neighborhood poverty was associated with a flatter early decline and a flatter wake-to-bed slope. Higher social cohesion and safety were associated with higher wake-up cortisol, steeper early decline and steeper wake-to-bed slope. Over 5 years, wake-up cortisol increased, CAR, early decline, late decline and wake-to-bed slope became flatter and AUC became larger. Higher poverty was associated with less pronounced increases in wake-up and AUC, while higher social cohesion was associated with greater increases in wake-up and AUC. Adverse neighborhood environments were cross-sectionally associated with flatter cortisol profiles, but associations with changes in cortisol were weak and not in the expected direction.
- Hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal axis
- Neighborhood poverty
- Social cohesion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health(social science)
- Sociology and Political Science
- Life-span and Life-course Studies