Evidence-based Medicine in Facial Plastic Surgery: Current State and Future Directions

Raj Dedhia, Tsung Yen Hsieh, Travis T. Tollefson, Lisa Earnest Ishii

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Evidence-based medicine (EBM) encompasses the evaluation and application of best available evidence, incorporation of clinical experience, and emphasis on patient preference and values. Different scales are used to rate levels of evidence. Translating available data for interventions to clinical practice guidelines requires an assessment of both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation. Essential to the practice of EBM is evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention through outcome measures. This article discusses principles essential to EBM, resources commonly used in EBM practice, and the strengths and limitations of EBM in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-274
Number of pages10
JournalFacial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • Clinician-reported outcomes
  • Evidence-based medicine
  • Grades of recommendation
  • Level of evidence
  • Patient-reported outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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