Rationale and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of computed tomography texture analysis (CTTA) of arterial and portal-venous enhancement phase image data for prediction and accurate assessment of response of hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) by comparison to liver perfusion CT (PCT). Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients (27 male; mean age 67.2 ± 10.4) with 56 hepatocellular carcinoma-typical liver lesions were included. Arterial and portal-venous phase CT data obtained before and after TACE with a mean time of 39.93 ± 62.21 days between examinations were analyzed. TACE was performed within 48 hours after first contrast-enhanced CT. CTTA software was a prototype. CTTA analysis was performed blinded (for results) by two observers separately. Combined results of modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (mRECIST) and PCT of the liver were used as the standard of reference. Time to progression was additionally assessed for all patients. CTTA parameters included heterogeneity, intensity, average, deviation, skewness, and entropy of co-occurrence. Each parameter was compared to those of PCT (blood flow [BF], blood volume, arterial liver perfusion [ALP], portal-venous perfusion, and hepatic perfusion index) measured before and after TACE. Results: mRECIST + PCT yielded 28.6% complete response (CR), 42.8% partial response, and 28.6% stable disease. Significant correlations were registered in the arterial phase in CR between changes in mean heterogeneity and BF (P = .004, r = -0.815), blood volume (P = .002, r = -0.851), and ALP (P = .002, r = -0.851), respectively. In the partial response group, changes in mean heterogeneity correlated with changes in ALP (P = .003) and to a lesser degree with hepatic perfusion index (P = .027) in the arterial phase. In the stable disease group, BF correlated with entropy of nonuniformity (P = .010). In the portal-venous phase, no statistically significant correlations were registered in all groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of CTTA parameters yielded predictive cutoff values for CR in the arterial contrast-enhanced CT phase for uniformity of skewness (sensitivity: 90.0%; specificity: 45.8%), and in the portal-venous phase for uniformity of heterogeneity (sensitivity: 92.3%; specificity: 81.8%). Conclusions: Significant correlations exist between CTTA parameters and those derived from PCT both in the pre- and the post-TACE settings, and some of them have predictive value for TACE midterm outcome.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
- Texture analysis
- Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging