Evaluation of interactions of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early IE2 regulatory protein with small ubiquitin-like modifiers and their conjugation enzyme Ubc9

J. H. Ahn, Y. Xu, W. J. Jang, Michael J Matunis, Gary Selwyn Hayward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early protein IE2 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that is believed to be a key regulator in both lytic and latent infections. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO-1, SUMO-2, and SUMO-3) and a SUMO-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) were isolated as IE2-interacting proteins. In vitro binding assays with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins provided evidence for direct protein-protein interaction. Mapping data showed that the C-terminal end of SUMO-1 is critical for interaction with IE2 in both yeast and in vitro binding assays. IE2 was efficiently modified by SUMO-1 or SUMO-2 in cotransfected cells and in cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing HCMV IE2, although the level of modification was much lower in HCMV-infected cells. Two lysine residues at positions 175 and 180 were mapped as major alternative SUMO-1 conjugation sites in both cotransfected cells and an in vitro sumoylation assay and could be conjugated by SUMO-1 simultaneously. Although mutations of these lysine residues did not interfere with the POD (or ND10) targeting of IE2, overexpression of SUMO-1 enhanced IE2-mediated transactivation in a promoter-dependent manner in reporter assays. Interestingly, many other cellular proteins identified as IE2 interaction partners in yeast two-hybrid assays also interact with SUMO-1, suggesting that either directly bound or covalently conjugated SUMO moieties may act as a bridge for interactions between IE2 and other SUMO-1-modified or SUMO-1interacting proteins. When we investigated the intracellular localization of SUMO-1 in HCMV-infected cells, the pattern changed from nuclear punctate to predominantly nuclear diffuse in an IE1-dependent manner at very early times after infection, but with some SUMO-1 protein now associated with IE2 punctate domains. However, at late times after infection, SUMO-1 was predominantly detected within viral DNA replication compartments containing IE2. Taken together, these results show that HCMV infection causes the redistribution of SUMO-1 and that IE2 both physically binds to and is covalently modified by SUMO moieties, suggesting possible modulation of both the function of SUMO-1 and protein-protein interactions of IE2 during HCMV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3859-3872
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume75
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Human herpesvirus 5
modifiers (genes)
regulatory proteins
ubiquitin
Ubiquitin
Cytomegalovirus
SUMO-1 Protein
Enzymes
enzymes
Sumoylation
two hybrid system techniques
Proteins
proteins
Cytomegalovirus Infections
protein-protein interactions
assays
Lysine
cells
Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins
lysine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

@article{4b56cdceddbb44f1b99f0c9a0657aca9,
title = "Evaluation of interactions of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early IE2 regulatory protein with small ubiquitin-like modifiers and their conjugation enzyme Ubc9",
abstract = "The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early protein IE2 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that is believed to be a key regulator in both lytic and latent infections. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO-1, SUMO-2, and SUMO-3) and a SUMO-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) were isolated as IE2-interacting proteins. In vitro binding assays with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins provided evidence for direct protein-protein interaction. Mapping data showed that the C-terminal end of SUMO-1 is critical for interaction with IE2 in both yeast and in vitro binding assays. IE2 was efficiently modified by SUMO-1 or SUMO-2 in cotransfected cells and in cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing HCMV IE2, although the level of modification was much lower in HCMV-infected cells. Two lysine residues at positions 175 and 180 were mapped as major alternative SUMO-1 conjugation sites in both cotransfected cells and an in vitro sumoylation assay and could be conjugated by SUMO-1 simultaneously. Although mutations of these lysine residues did not interfere with the POD (or ND10) targeting of IE2, overexpression of SUMO-1 enhanced IE2-mediated transactivation in a promoter-dependent manner in reporter assays. Interestingly, many other cellular proteins identified as IE2 interaction partners in yeast two-hybrid assays also interact with SUMO-1, suggesting that either directly bound or covalently conjugated SUMO moieties may act as a bridge for interactions between IE2 and other SUMO-1-modified or SUMO-1interacting proteins. When we investigated the intracellular localization of SUMO-1 in HCMV-infected cells, the pattern changed from nuclear punctate to predominantly nuclear diffuse in an IE1-dependent manner at very early times after infection, but with some SUMO-1 protein now associated with IE2 punctate domains. However, at late times after infection, SUMO-1 was predominantly detected within viral DNA replication compartments containing IE2. Taken together, these results show that HCMV infection causes the redistribution of SUMO-1 and that IE2 both physically binds to and is covalently modified by SUMO moieties, suggesting possible modulation of both the function of SUMO-1 and protein-protein interactions of IE2 during HCMV infection.",
author = "Ahn, {J. H.} and Y. Xu and Jang, {W. J.} and Matunis, {Michael J} and Hayward, {Gary Selwyn}",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1128/JVI.75.8.3859-3872.2001",
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journal = "Journal of Virology",
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T1 - Evaluation of interactions of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early IE2 regulatory protein with small ubiquitin-like modifiers and their conjugation enzyme Ubc9

AU - Ahn, J. H.

AU - Xu, Y.

AU - Jang, W. J.

AU - Matunis, Michael J

AU - Hayward, Gary Selwyn

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early protein IE2 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that is believed to be a key regulator in both lytic and latent infections. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO-1, SUMO-2, and SUMO-3) and a SUMO-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) were isolated as IE2-interacting proteins. In vitro binding assays with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins provided evidence for direct protein-protein interaction. Mapping data showed that the C-terminal end of SUMO-1 is critical for interaction with IE2 in both yeast and in vitro binding assays. IE2 was efficiently modified by SUMO-1 or SUMO-2 in cotransfected cells and in cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing HCMV IE2, although the level of modification was much lower in HCMV-infected cells. Two lysine residues at positions 175 and 180 were mapped as major alternative SUMO-1 conjugation sites in both cotransfected cells and an in vitro sumoylation assay and could be conjugated by SUMO-1 simultaneously. Although mutations of these lysine residues did not interfere with the POD (or ND10) targeting of IE2, overexpression of SUMO-1 enhanced IE2-mediated transactivation in a promoter-dependent manner in reporter assays. Interestingly, many other cellular proteins identified as IE2 interaction partners in yeast two-hybrid assays also interact with SUMO-1, suggesting that either directly bound or covalently conjugated SUMO moieties may act as a bridge for interactions between IE2 and other SUMO-1-modified or SUMO-1interacting proteins. When we investigated the intracellular localization of SUMO-1 in HCMV-infected cells, the pattern changed from nuclear punctate to predominantly nuclear diffuse in an IE1-dependent manner at very early times after infection, but with some SUMO-1 protein now associated with IE2 punctate domains. However, at late times after infection, SUMO-1 was predominantly detected within viral DNA replication compartments containing IE2. Taken together, these results show that HCMV infection causes the redistribution of SUMO-1 and that IE2 both physically binds to and is covalently modified by SUMO moieties, suggesting possible modulation of both the function of SUMO-1 and protein-protein interactions of IE2 during HCMV infection.

AB - The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early protein IE2 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that is believed to be a key regulator in both lytic and latent infections. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO-1, SUMO-2, and SUMO-3) and a SUMO-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) were isolated as IE2-interacting proteins. In vitro binding assays with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins provided evidence for direct protein-protein interaction. Mapping data showed that the C-terminal end of SUMO-1 is critical for interaction with IE2 in both yeast and in vitro binding assays. IE2 was efficiently modified by SUMO-1 or SUMO-2 in cotransfected cells and in cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing HCMV IE2, although the level of modification was much lower in HCMV-infected cells. Two lysine residues at positions 175 and 180 were mapped as major alternative SUMO-1 conjugation sites in both cotransfected cells and an in vitro sumoylation assay and could be conjugated by SUMO-1 simultaneously. Although mutations of these lysine residues did not interfere with the POD (or ND10) targeting of IE2, overexpression of SUMO-1 enhanced IE2-mediated transactivation in a promoter-dependent manner in reporter assays. Interestingly, many other cellular proteins identified as IE2 interaction partners in yeast two-hybrid assays also interact with SUMO-1, suggesting that either directly bound or covalently conjugated SUMO moieties may act as a bridge for interactions between IE2 and other SUMO-1-modified or SUMO-1interacting proteins. When we investigated the intracellular localization of SUMO-1 in HCMV-infected cells, the pattern changed from nuclear punctate to predominantly nuclear diffuse in an IE1-dependent manner at very early times after infection, but with some SUMO-1 protein now associated with IE2 punctate domains. However, at late times after infection, SUMO-1 was predominantly detected within viral DNA replication compartments containing IE2. Taken together, these results show that HCMV infection causes the redistribution of SUMO-1 and that IE2 both physically binds to and is covalently modified by SUMO moieties, suggesting possible modulation of both the function of SUMO-1 and protein-protein interactions of IE2 during HCMV infection.

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