Purpose: Two studies in previously treated metastatic pancreatic cancer have been completed combining GVAX pancreas vaccine (GM-CSF–secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells) with cyclophosphamide (Cy) and CRS-207 (live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes–expressing mesothelin). In the current study, we compared Cy/GVAX followed by CRS-207 with (Arm A) or without nivolumab (Arm B). Patients and Methods: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received one prior therapy for metastatic disease and RECIST measurable disease were randomized 1:1 to receive treatment on Arm A or Arm B. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between the arms. Additional objectives included assessment of progression-free survival, safety, tumor responses, CA19-9 responses, and immunologic correlates. Results: Ninety-three patients were treated (Arm A, 51; Arm B, 42). The median OS in Arms A and B were 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.7–8.6] and 6.1 (95% CI, 3.5–7.0) months, respectively, with an HR of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.55–1.34). Objective responses were seen in 3 patients using immune-related response criteria (4%, 2/51, Arm A; 2%, 1/42, Arm B). The grade ≥3 related adverse event rate, whereas higher in Arm A (35.3% vs. 11.9%) was manageable. Changes in the microenvironment, including increase in CD8þ T cells and a decrease in CD68þ myeloid cells, were observed in long-term survivors in Arm A only. Conclusions: Although the study did not meet its primary endpoint of improvement in OS of Arm A over Arm B, the OS was comparable with standard therapy. Objective responses and immunologic changes in the tumor microenvironment were evident.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research