Objective To clarify the impact of the updated American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the evaluation of children presenting with initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) on the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with normal renal sonograms. Materials and methods Children with VUR followed between 2002 and 2004 were evaluated using criteria specified in the AAP guidelines. A total of 49 children (42 girls) who were 2-24 months of age at diagnosis of VUR made following initial febrile UTI were included. Results 40.8% of ultrasounds were abnormal. While children with abnormal ultrasounds were more likely to have scintigraphic evidence of renal damage than children with normal ultrasounds (50% vs 17%, p = 0.026), one third of the children with abnormal renal scans had normal RBUS. There was no statistically significant difference in diagnosis of grade 3 or higher VUR between groups (p = 0.136). Conclusions Most children in this series would not have been diagnosed with VUR after initial febrile UTI. More worrisome, 17.2% of children with normal ultrasound had renal injury identified on renal scanning, and 62.1% had grade 3 or higher VUR. These findings reinforce concerns that the new guidelines may miss or delay diagnosis of clinically significant VUR.
- Urinary tract infections
- Vesico-ureteral reflux
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health