Purpose: We assessed the feasibility and safety of placing a radiopaque hydrogel in the pancreaticoduodenal groove via endoscopic ultrasound guidance in patients with borderline resectable/locally advanced pancreatic cancer (BR/LAPC). Methods and Materials: Hydrogel injections were done at time of fiducial placement to form blebs in the pancreaticoduodenal groove. Patients subsequently underwent simulation computed tomography (sim-CT) followed by hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT; 33 Gy in 5 fractions). Four to 8 weeks after SBRT, patients underwent CT re-evaluation for surgical candidacy and assessment of hydrogel location and size. Hydrogel placement was considered successful if identified in the pancreaticoduodenal groove on sim-CT scan. Stability was evaluated using equivalence testing analyses, with a null hypothesis of the presence of a ≥20% mean percentage change in volume and ≥2 mm change in the median and mean interbleb surface distance with a P value <.05 required to reject the null hypothesis and conclude equivalence. For patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, hydrogel sites were histologically examined for location and local inflammatory reactions. Results: Hydrogel placement was successful in 6 of the 6 evaluable patients. The average changes in median and mean interbleb distances were −0.43 mm and −0.35 mm, respectively, with P < .05. The average change in volume from sim-CT to post-SBRT CT was −1.0%, with P < .05. One patient experienced grade 3 nausea after fiducial/hydrogel placement, with no other adverse events to date. Conclusions: These data demonstrate feasibility and safety of injecting a hydrogel marker in the pancreaticoduodenal groove in patients with BR/LAPC and set the stage for a follow-up clinical trial to place hydrogel as a spacer between the pancreatic tumor and dose-limiting, radiosensitive duodenum.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging