Evaluation and mapping of the DNA binding and oligomerization domains of the IE2, regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus using yeast one and two hybrid interaction assays

Jin Hyun Ahn, Chuang Jiun Chiou, Gary Selwyn Hayward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The 86-kDa IE2 nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) gene behaves as both a non-specific transactivator of viral and cellular gene expression and as a specific DNA-binding protein targeted to the cis-repression sequence (CRS) at the cap site of its own promoter/enhancer region. Although the IE2 protein produced in bacteria has been shown to bind to the 14-bp palindromic CRS motif and IE2 synthesized in vitro forms stable dimers in solution through the conserved C-terminus of the protein, there is no direct evidence as yet that the intracellular mammalian forms of IE2 do so. Here, we show that the intact HCMV IE2 protein both binds to CRS DNA and dimerizes in yeast cells. In a one-hybrid assay system, a GAL4/IE2 fusion protein expressed in yeast cells activated target HIS3 expression only when CRS sites were located upstream of the GAL1 minimal promoter, but failed to do so on mutant CRS sites, demonstrating a requirement for sequence-specific DNA-binding by IE2. Examination of a series of deletion and triple amino acid point mutations in the C-terminal half of IE2 mapped the domains required for DNA-binding in yeast to the entire region between codons 313 and 579, whereas in the previous in vitro study with truncated bacterial GST fusion proteins, it was mapped to between codons 346 and 579. Transient co-transfection assays with deleted IE2 effector genes in Vero cells showed that the extra segment of IE2 between codons 313 and 346 is also required for both autoregulation and transactivation activity in mammalian cells. In a two-hybrid assay to study IE2 self-interations, we generated both GAL4 DNA-binding (DB) and activation domain (A)/IE2 fusion proteins and showed that IE2 could also dimerize or oligomerize through the C-terminus of the protein in yeast cells. Domains required for this interaction were all mapped to within the region between codons 388 and 542, which is coincident with the domain mapped previously for dimerization by co-translation and immunoprecipitation in vitro. Comparison of the domains of the IE2 protein required for CRS binding and dimerization in yeast suggests that these activities correlate precisely with requirements for the negative autoregulation function of the IE2 protein in mammalian cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-36
Number of pages12
JournalGene
Volume210
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 27 1998

Fingerprint

Two-Hybrid System Techniques
Cytomegalovirus
Codon
Yeasts
DNA
Dimerization
Protein C
Proteins
Homeostasis
Vero Cells
Immediate-Early Genes
Fungal Proteins
Trans-Activators
Viral Genes
Phosphoproteins
DNA-Binding Proteins
Immunoprecipitation
Point Mutation
Genetic Promoter Regions
Transcriptional Activation

Keywords

  • Autoregulation
  • Cis-repression signal
  • Domain mapping
  • HCMV
  • Transactivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

Cite this

@article{31066f2e2bad4da484654793271bcec9,
title = "Evaluation and mapping of the DNA binding and oligomerization domains of the IE2, regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus using yeast one and two hybrid interaction assays",
abstract = "The 86-kDa IE2 nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) gene behaves as both a non-specific transactivator of viral and cellular gene expression and as a specific DNA-binding protein targeted to the cis-repression sequence (CRS) at the cap site of its own promoter/enhancer region. Although the IE2 protein produced in bacteria has been shown to bind to the 14-bp palindromic CRS motif and IE2 synthesized in vitro forms stable dimers in solution through the conserved C-terminus of the protein, there is no direct evidence as yet that the intracellular mammalian forms of IE2 do so. Here, we show that the intact HCMV IE2 protein both binds to CRS DNA and dimerizes in yeast cells. In a one-hybrid assay system, a GAL4/IE2 fusion protein expressed in yeast cells activated target HIS3 expression only when CRS sites were located upstream of the GAL1 minimal promoter, but failed to do so on mutant CRS sites, demonstrating a requirement for sequence-specific DNA-binding by IE2. Examination of a series of deletion and triple amino acid point mutations in the C-terminal half of IE2 mapped the domains required for DNA-binding in yeast to the entire region between codons 313 and 579, whereas in the previous in vitro study with truncated bacterial GST fusion proteins, it was mapped to between codons 346 and 579. Transient co-transfection assays with deleted IE2 effector genes in Vero cells showed that the extra segment of IE2 between codons 313 and 346 is also required for both autoregulation and transactivation activity in mammalian cells. In a two-hybrid assay to study IE2 self-interations, we generated both GAL4 DNA-binding (DB) and activation domain (A)/IE2 fusion proteins and showed that IE2 could also dimerize or oligomerize through the C-terminus of the protein in yeast cells. Domains required for this interaction were all mapped to within the region between codons 388 and 542, which is coincident with the domain mapped previously for dimerization by co-translation and immunoprecipitation in vitro. Comparison of the domains of the IE2 protein required for CRS binding and dimerization in yeast suggests that these activities correlate precisely with requirements for the negative autoregulation function of the IE2 protein in mammalian cells.",
keywords = "Autoregulation, Cis-repression signal, Domain mapping, HCMV, Transactivation",
author = "Ahn, {Jin Hyun} and Chiou, {Chuang Jiun} and Hayward, {Gary Selwyn}",
year = "1998",
month = "3",
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T1 - Evaluation and mapping of the DNA binding and oligomerization domains of the IE2, regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus using yeast one and two hybrid interaction assays

AU - Ahn, Jin Hyun

AU - Chiou, Chuang Jiun

AU - Hayward, Gary Selwyn

PY - 1998/3/27

Y1 - 1998/3/27

N2 - The 86-kDa IE2 nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) gene behaves as both a non-specific transactivator of viral and cellular gene expression and as a specific DNA-binding protein targeted to the cis-repression sequence (CRS) at the cap site of its own promoter/enhancer region. Although the IE2 protein produced in bacteria has been shown to bind to the 14-bp palindromic CRS motif and IE2 synthesized in vitro forms stable dimers in solution through the conserved C-terminus of the protein, there is no direct evidence as yet that the intracellular mammalian forms of IE2 do so. Here, we show that the intact HCMV IE2 protein both binds to CRS DNA and dimerizes in yeast cells. In a one-hybrid assay system, a GAL4/IE2 fusion protein expressed in yeast cells activated target HIS3 expression only when CRS sites were located upstream of the GAL1 minimal promoter, but failed to do so on mutant CRS sites, demonstrating a requirement for sequence-specific DNA-binding by IE2. Examination of a series of deletion and triple amino acid point mutations in the C-terminal half of IE2 mapped the domains required for DNA-binding in yeast to the entire region between codons 313 and 579, whereas in the previous in vitro study with truncated bacterial GST fusion proteins, it was mapped to between codons 346 and 579. Transient co-transfection assays with deleted IE2 effector genes in Vero cells showed that the extra segment of IE2 between codons 313 and 346 is also required for both autoregulation and transactivation activity in mammalian cells. In a two-hybrid assay to study IE2 self-interations, we generated both GAL4 DNA-binding (DB) and activation domain (A)/IE2 fusion proteins and showed that IE2 could also dimerize or oligomerize through the C-terminus of the protein in yeast cells. Domains required for this interaction were all mapped to within the region between codons 388 and 542, which is coincident with the domain mapped previously for dimerization by co-translation and immunoprecipitation in vitro. Comparison of the domains of the IE2 protein required for CRS binding and dimerization in yeast suggests that these activities correlate precisely with requirements for the negative autoregulation function of the IE2 protein in mammalian cells.

AB - The 86-kDa IE2 nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) gene behaves as both a non-specific transactivator of viral and cellular gene expression and as a specific DNA-binding protein targeted to the cis-repression sequence (CRS) at the cap site of its own promoter/enhancer region. Although the IE2 protein produced in bacteria has been shown to bind to the 14-bp palindromic CRS motif and IE2 synthesized in vitro forms stable dimers in solution through the conserved C-terminus of the protein, there is no direct evidence as yet that the intracellular mammalian forms of IE2 do so. Here, we show that the intact HCMV IE2 protein both binds to CRS DNA and dimerizes in yeast cells. In a one-hybrid assay system, a GAL4/IE2 fusion protein expressed in yeast cells activated target HIS3 expression only when CRS sites were located upstream of the GAL1 minimal promoter, but failed to do so on mutant CRS sites, demonstrating a requirement for sequence-specific DNA-binding by IE2. Examination of a series of deletion and triple amino acid point mutations in the C-terminal half of IE2 mapped the domains required for DNA-binding in yeast to the entire region between codons 313 and 579, whereas in the previous in vitro study with truncated bacterial GST fusion proteins, it was mapped to between codons 346 and 579. Transient co-transfection assays with deleted IE2 effector genes in Vero cells showed that the extra segment of IE2 between codons 313 and 346 is also required for both autoregulation and transactivation activity in mammalian cells. In a two-hybrid assay to study IE2 self-interations, we generated both GAL4 DNA-binding (DB) and activation domain (A)/IE2 fusion proteins and showed that IE2 could also dimerize or oligomerize through the C-terminus of the protein in yeast cells. Domains required for this interaction were all mapped to within the region between codons 388 and 542, which is coincident with the domain mapped previously for dimerization by co-translation and immunoprecipitation in vitro. Comparison of the domains of the IE2 protein required for CRS binding and dimerization in yeast suggests that these activities correlate precisely with requirements for the negative autoregulation function of the IE2 protein in mammalian cells.

KW - Autoregulation

KW - Cis-repression signal

KW - Domain mapping

KW - HCMV

KW - Transactivation

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