Objective To determine whether postoperative oral antibiotics are associated with decreased risk of explantation following artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) or inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) placement. Although frequently prescribed, the role of postoperative oral antibiotics in preventing AUS or IPP explantation is unknown. Materials and Methods We queried the MarketScan database to identify male patients undergoing AUS or IPP placement between 2003 and 2014. The primary end point was device explantation within 3 months of placement. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for clinical risk factors assessed the impact of postoperative oral antibiotic administration on explant rates. Results We identified 10,847 and 3594 men who underwent IPP and AUS placement, respectively, between 2003 and 2014. Postoperative oral antibiotics were prescribed to 60.6% of patients following IPP placement and 61.1% of patients following AUS placement. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were fluoroquinolones (35.6%), cephalexin (17.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (7.0%), and amoxicillin-clavulanate (3.2%). Explant rates did not differ based upon receipt of oral antibiotics (antibiotics vs no antibiotics: IPP: 2.2% vs 1.9%, P =.18, AUS: 3.9% vs 4.0%, P =.94). On multivariate analysis, no individual class of antibiotic was associated with decreased odds of device explantation. Conclusion Postoperative oral antibiotics are prescribed to nearly two-thirds of patients but are not associated with reduced odds of explant following IPP or AUS placement. Given the risks to individuals associated with use of antibiotics and increasing bacterial resistance, the role of oral antibiotics after prosthetic placement should be reconsidered and further studied in a prospective fashion.
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