Background: Endosonography (EUS) is widely used for locoregional staging of malignant GI tumors. Delineation of a tumor's margins with a long-lasting fluoroscopically visible material will facilitate subsequent surgical and radiation therapy. Objective: To assess the feasibility of EUS-guided submucosal implantation of a radiopaque marker in a porcine model. Setting: Survival experiments on four 50-kg pigs. Methods: A linear array echoendoscope was introduced into the esophagus and advanced to the stomach. With a 19-gauge FNA needle, a submucosal bleb was created by injecting 3 mL of normal saline solution into the gastric and esophageal wall followed by injection of 1 mL of tantalum suspension under fluoroscopic observation. Fluoroscopy was repeated after 1, 2, and 4 weeks followed by euthanasia and necropsy. Main Outcome Measurements: Long-term depositions of the marker in the injection sites. Results: Submucosal injections of tantalum were easily performed through the 19-gauge FNA needle, resulting in good fluoroscopic opacification of injected material. Follow-up fluoroscopy in 1, 2, and 4 weeks demonstrated stable deposition of the tantalum at the sites of injection. There were no complications during and after the tantalum implantation. Histologic examination of the injection sites demonstrated submucosal tantalum depositions without signs of infection, inflammation, tissue damage, or necrosis. Limitations: Animal experiments with 4 weeks' follow-up. Conclusions: EUS-guided implantation of tantalum as a radiopaque marker into the submucosal layer of the GI tract in a porcine model is technically feasible and safe. Long-lasting fluoroscopically visible tantalum markings could facilitate subsequent surgical and radiation therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging