In evaluating and intervening to increase adherence to medical treatments, clinicians and researchers must address ethical issues pertaining to best interest, autonomy, and privacy. 'Best interest' refers to the notion that health-care practitioners act in a manner that produces benefits or good outcomes for the patients in their care. 'Autonomy' refers to the patient's right to determine whether or not they will accept medical treatment or participate in a clinical study. 'Nonmaleficence' refers to the clinician's or researcher's responsibility to 'do no harm.' 'Privacy' refers to the notion that researchers and clinicians promise not to divulge personal information about the patients in their care. Adherence monitoring and promotion pose ethical challenges to researchers and clinicians, which are the topic of this paper. Control Clin Trials 2000;21:241S-247S Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.
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