Ethanol, morphine and barbiturate alter the hemodynamic and cerebral response to cocaine in newborn pigs

Maria Luiza C. Albuquerque, C. Dean Kurth, Constance L. Monitto, Leslie Shaw, Endla K. Anday

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Newborns delivered to cocaine-abusing mothers are often exposed to other concurrently consumed illicit drugs, which may alter the hemodynamic and cerebral response to cocaine. This study examined the interaction of ethanol, morphine or barbiturate with cocaine on mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in newborn pigs. CBF, CMRO2 and cerebral O2 extraction (CECO2) were measured before and 4 and 10 min after cocaine (1.5 mg/kg i.v.) was administered in piglets that were awake, or pretreated with morphine, ethanol or pentobarbital. In awake piglets, cocaine increased CMRO2 and CEO2 while it had no significant effect on CBF. Conversely, in morphine- and ethanol-pretreated piglets, cocaine decreased CMRO2, decreased CBF and had not effect on CEO2. In awake piglets, cocaine increased MAP, whereas in morphine- or ethanol-pretreated piglets, cocaine decreased MAP. In the pentobarbital group, cocaine had no effect. These data demonstrate that other drugs of abuse alter the hemodynamic and cerebral effects of cocaine in the immature animal and may contribute to the central nervous system abnormalities in 'crack babies'.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)432-440
Number of pages9
JournalNeonatology
Volume67
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Arterial pressure
  • Barbiturates
  • Cerebral response
  • Cocaine
  • Drug abuse
  • Ethanol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Biology

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