Acute pulmonary dysfunction remains a frequent and severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Almost half of the pulmonary insults that occur in this setting are noninfectious in origin and are referred to as idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). In this series of 3 patients, etanercept (Enbrel; Immunex, Seattle, WA), a soluble, dimeric tumor necrosis factor α-binding protein, was administered to 3 consecutive pediatric allogeneic BMT recipients with IPS. The administration of etanercept, in combination with standard immunosuppressive therapy, was well tolerated and associated with significant improvements in pulmonary dysfunction within the first week of theraphy. These data suggest that etanercept may represent a safe, non-cross-reactive, therapeutic option for patients with IPS and that clinical trials studying etanercept for this indication are warranted.
- Allogeneic BMT
- Pulmonary dysfunction
- Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)
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