Estimating the economic impact of pneumococcal conjugate, Haemophilus influenzae type b and rotavirus vaccines in India: National and state-level analyses

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: To support vaccine decision-making we estimated from the societal perspective the potential health impact and costs averted through immunization with three vaccines – Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus vaccine (RVV). Methods: Based on variability in disease burden, strength of health system and economic status, we selected four states in India: Bihar, New Delhi, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. We used secondary data sources to estimate the number of under-5 deaths averted from Hib, pneumococcus and rotavirus in each state and back-calculated the total cases averted. We synthesized available data to estimate the disease burden, treatment cost, caretaker productivity loss and vaccine coverage in each state. A Delphi Survey and roundtable among Indian experts was conducted to reach consensus on model inputs. Results: By scaling up coverage of Hib, PCV and RVV, India could save over US$1 billion (uncertainty range: US$0.9–US$2.4 billion) in economic benefits and avert more than 90,000 needless child deaths each year. An estimated US$1 billion (US$0.9–US$2 billion) or 88% of the total amount of cost savings would be attributable to lost productivity due to premature pneumococcal death. Another US$112.8 million (US$105–297 million), or 10% of the total cost would be accounted by costs related to loss of productivity due to disability as a result of these diseases. Treatment costs of Hib, pneumococcal disease and rotavirus gastroenteritis, would account for US$8.4 million (US$4–12 million) or <1% of the total costs of these diseases. Finally, caretaker productivity loss from seeking care would represent US$1.5 million (US$ 1–4.9 million). Cost savings varied by vaccine, coverage scenarios and states. Conclusions: Hib, PCV and RVV vaccine introduction in India can result in immediate benefits to the government and households in terms of savings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019



  • Diarrhea
  • Economics
  • India
  • Meningitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Savings
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this