Open cholecystectomy has been associated historically with 0.2% to 0.5% risk of postoperative biliary injury. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which has become the first-line surgical treatment of calculous gallbladder disease, has been associated with a 2.5-fold to fourfold increase in the incidence of postoperative bile duct injury. The biliary endoscopist can expect to see a varied spectrum of complications after cholecystectomy by either technique, including postoperative biliary strictures, bile leaks, and retained calculi in the biliary tree. Proper diagnosis and treatment are paramount in ensuring a satisfactory outcome after bile duct injury. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become the primary modality for treatment and effectively manages most bile duct injuries.
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