Epidermal growth factor receptor-independent constitutive activation of STAT3 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is mediated by the autocrine/paracrine stimulation of the interleukin 6/gp130 cytokine system

Virote Sriuranpong, Jong In Park, Panomwat Amornphimoltham, Vyomesh Patel, Barry D Nelkin, J. Silvio Gutkind

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The aberrant growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is often associated with the constitutive activation of signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3 (STAT3), which is believed to result from the persistent stimulation of EGF receptors that are highly expressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. To investigate the mechanism underlying STAT3 deregulation in HNSCC, we examined the interplay of the STAT3 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways using a panel of HNSCC cell lines. Although STAT3 was active in most HNSCC cell lines, only 3 of 10 HNSCC cell lines were moderately to strongly positive for activated EGFR. Even in the EGFR-positive cell lines, STAT3 activation was not dependent on EGFR activation, as STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation levels persisted after treatment with AG1478, a chemical inhibitor of EGFR activity. Furthermore, we found that conditioned medium harvested from HNSCC cells could induce STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in immortalized keratinocytes regardless of the status of EGFR signaling. In contrast, blocking the cytokine gp130 coreceptor abolished STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in HNSCC cells and that induced by the conditioned medium. Immunodepletion studies suggested interleukin 6 (IL6) as the major autocrine/paracrine factor for STAT3 activation, which coincided with high levels of secretion of IL6 into the culture medium by these cancer cells. Treatment with a specific inhibitor of Janus kinase, AG490, in HNSCC cells led to a reduction of active STAT3 and caused significant growth retardation and apoptosis. Thus, constitutive activation of STAT3 in HNSCC may use an autocrine/paracrine-activating loop mediated by IL6 and other cytokines acting through the gp130 receptor family, which may confer both proliferative and survival potential in this malignancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2948-2956
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Research
Volume63
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003

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STAT3 Transcription Factor
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
Interleukin-6
Cytokines
Cell Line
Phosphorylation
Conditioned Culture Medium
Transcriptional Activation
Carcinoma, squamous cell of head and neck
Janus Kinases
Growth
Keratinocytes
Culture Media
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Epidermal growth factor receptor-independent constitutive activation of STAT3 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is mediated by the autocrine/paracrine stimulation of the interleukin 6/gp130 cytokine system. / Sriuranpong, Virote; Park, Jong In; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Patel, Vyomesh; Nelkin, Barry D; Gutkind, J. Silvio.

In: Cancer Research, Vol. 63, No. 11, 01.06.2003, p. 2948-2956.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The aberrant growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is often associated with the constitutive activation of signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3 (STAT3), which is believed to result from the persistent stimulation of EGF receptors that are highly expressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. To investigate the mechanism underlying STAT3 deregulation in HNSCC, we examined the interplay of the STAT3 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways using a panel of HNSCC cell lines. Although STAT3 was active in most HNSCC cell lines, only 3 of 10 HNSCC cell lines were moderately to strongly positive for activated EGFR. Even in the EGFR-positive cell lines, STAT3 activation was not dependent on EGFR activation, as STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation levels persisted after treatment with AG1478, a chemical inhibitor of EGFR activity. Furthermore, we found that conditioned medium harvested from HNSCC cells could induce STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in immortalized keratinocytes regardless of the status of EGFR signaling. In contrast, blocking the cytokine gp130 coreceptor abolished STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in HNSCC cells and that induced by the conditioned medium. Immunodepletion studies suggested interleukin 6 (IL6) as the major autocrine/paracrine factor for STAT3 activation, which coincided with high levels of secretion of IL6 into the culture medium by these cancer cells. Treatment with a specific inhibitor of Janus kinase, AG490, in HNSCC cells led to a reduction of active STAT3 and caused significant growth retardation and apoptosis. Thus, constitutive activation of STAT3 in HNSCC may use an autocrine/paracrine-activating loop mediated by IL6 and other cytokines acting through the gp130 receptor family, which may confer both proliferative and survival potential in this malignancy.",
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