Epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type A disease among Navajo and White Mountain Apache children, 1988-2003

Eugene V. Millar, Katherine L O'Brien, James P. Watt, Jairam Lingappa, Ravi Pallipamu, Nancy Rosenstein, Diana Hu, Raymond Reid, Mathuram Santosham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background. Before the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, rates of H. influenzae disease among Navajo and White Mountain Apache (WMA) children were among the highest reported worldwide. Routine Hib vaccination has significantly reduced rates of Hib disease in these populations. As Hib disease rates decrease to very low levels, there are concerns that non-type b strains of H. influenzae may emerge as more prevalent causes of invasive disease in children. Methods. We reviewed population-based, active laboratory surveillance data from the period of 1988-2003 for invasive H. influenzae type a (Hia) disease among Navajo and WMA children aged

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)823-830
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 15 2005


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

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