Epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in opiate users in Northern Thailand

David D Celentano, Jaroon Jittiwutikorn, Matthew J. Hodge, Christopher Beyrer, Kenrad Edwin Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Characterizing the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Northern Thai opiate users is important in developing control strategies in this ethnically diverse and culturally distinct region. A cross-sectional survey of drug users first admitted between 1993 and 1995 at the Northern Drug Dependence Treatment Center, Mae Rim, Thailand, was conducted. Patients (n = 4197) were interviewed at intake about their history of drug use when they provided serum specimens for HIV-1 antibody testing. The HIV-1 prevalence was 18.6%, with men having a fourfold higher prevalence than women. Wide diversity in HIV-1 prevalence was seen by ethnicity; the HIV-1 prevalence among Thai lowlanders was four times greater than that among ethnic minorities (hill tribes). Differences in HIV-1 prevalence were the result of differences in opiate use; hill tribes frequently smoked or ingested opium, whereas Thai lowlanders injected heroin. The high HIV-1 prevalence suggests that preventive interventions for risk reduction are urgently needed in these populations. Education about the risks of injection drug use (IDU) as well as information concerning needle disinfection and expansion of drug treatment are required to reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with sharing injection equipment. Further, increasing sources of sterile needles should be considered for active users, especially for those in more remote settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-78
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
Volume17
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998

Fingerprint

Opiate Alkaloids
Thailand
HIV Infections
HIV-1
Epidemiology
Population Groups
Needles
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Opium
HIV Antibodies
Injections
Disinfection
Heroin
Risk Reduction Behavior
Drug Users
Substance-Related Disorders
Cross-Sectional Studies

Keywords

  • Drug Use
  • Ethnic minorities
  • Heroin
  • HIV-1 infection
  • Opium
  • Thailand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Virology

Cite this

Epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in opiate users in Northern Thailand. / Celentano, David D; Jittiwutikorn, Jaroon; Hodge, Matthew J.; Beyrer, Christopher; Nelson, Kenrad Edwin.

In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 01.01.1998, p. 73-78.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{fb6c62bb879c4574ac8c5814e4cf74fb,
title = "Epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in opiate users in Northern Thailand",
abstract = "Characterizing the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Northern Thai opiate users is important in developing control strategies in this ethnically diverse and culturally distinct region. A cross-sectional survey of drug users first admitted between 1993 and 1995 at the Northern Drug Dependence Treatment Center, Mae Rim, Thailand, was conducted. Patients (n = 4197) were interviewed at intake about their history of drug use when they provided serum specimens for HIV-1 antibody testing. The HIV-1 prevalence was 18.6{\%}, with men having a fourfold higher prevalence than women. Wide diversity in HIV-1 prevalence was seen by ethnicity; the HIV-1 prevalence among Thai lowlanders was four times greater than that among ethnic minorities (hill tribes). Differences in HIV-1 prevalence were the result of differences in opiate use; hill tribes frequently smoked or ingested opium, whereas Thai lowlanders injected heroin. The high HIV-1 prevalence suggests that preventive interventions for risk reduction are urgently needed in these populations. Education about the risks of injection drug use (IDU) as well as information concerning needle disinfection and expansion of drug treatment are required to reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with sharing injection equipment. Further, increasing sources of sterile needles should be considered for active users, especially for those in more remote settings.",
keywords = "Drug Use, Ethnic minorities, Heroin, HIV-1 infection, Opium, Thailand",
author = "Celentano, {David D} and Jaroon Jittiwutikorn and Hodge, {Matthew J.} and Christopher Beyrer and Nelson, {Kenrad Edwin}",
year = "1998",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
pages = "73--78",
journal = "Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes",
issn = "1525-4135",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in opiate users in Northern Thailand

AU - Celentano, David D

AU - Jittiwutikorn, Jaroon

AU - Hodge, Matthew J.

AU - Beyrer, Christopher

AU - Nelson, Kenrad Edwin

PY - 1998/1/1

Y1 - 1998/1/1

N2 - Characterizing the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Northern Thai opiate users is important in developing control strategies in this ethnically diverse and culturally distinct region. A cross-sectional survey of drug users first admitted between 1993 and 1995 at the Northern Drug Dependence Treatment Center, Mae Rim, Thailand, was conducted. Patients (n = 4197) were interviewed at intake about their history of drug use when they provided serum specimens for HIV-1 antibody testing. The HIV-1 prevalence was 18.6%, with men having a fourfold higher prevalence than women. Wide diversity in HIV-1 prevalence was seen by ethnicity; the HIV-1 prevalence among Thai lowlanders was four times greater than that among ethnic minorities (hill tribes). Differences in HIV-1 prevalence were the result of differences in opiate use; hill tribes frequently smoked or ingested opium, whereas Thai lowlanders injected heroin. The high HIV-1 prevalence suggests that preventive interventions for risk reduction are urgently needed in these populations. Education about the risks of injection drug use (IDU) as well as information concerning needle disinfection and expansion of drug treatment are required to reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with sharing injection equipment. Further, increasing sources of sterile needles should be considered for active users, especially for those in more remote settings.

AB - Characterizing the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Northern Thai opiate users is important in developing control strategies in this ethnically diverse and culturally distinct region. A cross-sectional survey of drug users first admitted between 1993 and 1995 at the Northern Drug Dependence Treatment Center, Mae Rim, Thailand, was conducted. Patients (n = 4197) were interviewed at intake about their history of drug use when they provided serum specimens for HIV-1 antibody testing. The HIV-1 prevalence was 18.6%, with men having a fourfold higher prevalence than women. Wide diversity in HIV-1 prevalence was seen by ethnicity; the HIV-1 prevalence among Thai lowlanders was four times greater than that among ethnic minorities (hill tribes). Differences in HIV-1 prevalence were the result of differences in opiate use; hill tribes frequently smoked or ingested opium, whereas Thai lowlanders injected heroin. The high HIV-1 prevalence suggests that preventive interventions for risk reduction are urgently needed in these populations. Education about the risks of injection drug use (IDU) as well as information concerning needle disinfection and expansion of drug treatment are required to reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with sharing injection equipment. Further, increasing sources of sterile needles should be considered for active users, especially for those in more remote settings.

KW - Drug Use

KW - Ethnic minorities

KW - Heroin

KW - HIV-1 infection

KW - Opium

KW - Thailand

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031963499&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031963499&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 73

EP - 78

JO - Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

JF - Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

SN - 1525-4135

IS - 1

ER -