Epidemiology of facial fractures: Incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study

Ratilal Lalloo, Lydia R. Lucchesi, Catherine Bisignano, Chris D. Castle, Zachary V. Dingels, Jack T. Fox, Erin B. Hamilton, Zichen Liu, Nicholas L.S. Roberts, Dillon O. Sylte, Fares Alahdab, Vahid Alipour, Ubai Alsharif, Jalal Arabloo, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, MacIej Banach, Ali Bijani, Christopher Stephen Crowe, Ahmad Daryani, Huyen Phuc DoLinh Phuong Doan, Florian Fischer, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel, Juanita A. Haagsma, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Samer Hamidi, Chi Linh Hoang, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Saleh Khader, Rovshan Khalilov, Abdullah T. Khoja, Aliasghar A. Kiadaliri, Marek Majdan, Navid Manaf, Ali Manafi, Benjamin Ballard Massenburg, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Shane Douglas Morrison, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Son Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Tinuke O. Olagunju, Nikita Otstavnov, Suzanne Polinder, Navid Rabiee, Mohammad Rabiee, Kiana Ramezanzadeh, Kavitha Ranganathan, Aziz Rezapour, Saeed Safari, Abdallah M. Samy, Lidia Sanchez Riera, Masood Ali Shaikh, Bach Xuan Tran, Parviz Vahedi, Amir Vahedian-Azimi, Zhi Jiang Zhang, David M. Pigott, Simon I. Hay, Ali H. Mokdad, Spencer L. James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) has historically produced estimates of causes of injury such as falls but not the resulting types of injuries that occur. The objective of this study was to estimate the global incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) due to facial fractures and to estimate the leading injurious causes of facial fracture. Methods: We obtained results from GBD 2017. First, the study estimated the incidence from each injury cause (eg, falls), and then the proportion of each cause that would result in facial fracture being the most disabling injury. Incidence, prevalence and YLDs of facial fractures are then calculated across causes. Results: Globally, in 2017, there were 7 538 663 (95% uncertainty interval 6 116 489 to 9 493 113) new cases, 1 819 732 (1 609 419 to 2 091 618) prevalent cases, and 117 402 (73 266 to 169 689) YLDs due to facial fractures. In terms of age-standardised incidence, prevalence and YLDs, the global rates were 98 (80 to 123) per 100 000, 23 (20 to 27) per 100 000, and 2 (1 to 2) per 100 000, respectively. Facial fractures were most concentrated in Central Europe. Falls were the predominant cause in most regions. Conclusions: Facial fractures are predominantly caused by falls and occur worldwide. Healthcare systems and public health agencies should investigate methods of all injury prevention. It is important for healthcare systems in every part of the world to ensure access to treatment resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInjury Prevention
StateAccepted/In press - 2019


  • burden of disease
  • dental injury
  • descriptive epidemiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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