Nephrolithiasis is a disease common in both the Western and non-Western world. Several population based studies have demonstrated a rising prevalence and incidence of the disease over the last several decades. Recurrence occurs frequently after an initial stone event. The influence of diet on the risk of nephrolithiasis is important, particularly dietary calcium and fluid intake. An increasing intake of dietary calcium and fluid are consistently associated with a reduced risk of incident nephrolithiasis in both men and women. Increasing evidence suggests that nephrolithiasis is associated with systemic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Nephrolithiasis places a significant burden on the health care system, which is likely to increase with time.
- Kidney calculi
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