Epidemiological and genetic study of 121 cases of oral clefts in Kuwait

Suzanne A. Al-Bustan, Mokhtar M. El-Zawahri, Amani M. Al-Adsani, Ramesshwar L. Bang, Ibrahim Ghunaim, Brion S. Maher, Seth Weinberg, Mary L. Marazita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Aim: The aim of the study was to ascertain some epidemiological factors such as sex and consanguinity that may be associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± CP) in Kuwait as well as to conduct genetic segregation analysis of these families. Setting and sample population: A total of 113 families ascertained through 121 CL ± CP and CP surgical probands in Kuwait. The frequencies of cleft types and the epidemiological variables were calculated using SPSS version 5.0 software. Chi-square for goodness-of-fit test was used to test the significance of the associated epidemiological variables to facial clefts. Genetic segregation analysis was performed on 76 families with extended pedigrees and included only those with non-syndromic CL ± CP (NS CL ± CP). Major locus segregation analysis was used to fit models to the observed family patterns under Class A regressive models as implemented by REGD routine in S.A.G.E. release 4.0. A test for heterogeneity was also conducted to complete data set in addition to two subsets: Arabs and nomads. Results: Of the 121 patients, 34(28.1%) had CP, 30(24.8%) had CL and 57 (47.1%) had CL + CP. The male to female ratio was 0.89 for CP, 1.14 for CL, 1.35 for CL + CP and 1.2 for all the clefts. The percentage of consanguineous families among those with a positive family history (60%) was not significantly different from that of the general population (54.3%), whereas for all the families with clefts the percent consanguineous was significantly lower (38%). No evidence of heterogeneity in the results between the Arab and nomad subsets was observed. The results for the major locus segregation analysis were inconclusive. Conclusion: No definite association was observed between consanguinity and the occurrence of facial clefts in Kuwait. General transmission models in the full data set showed no evidence of heterogeneity in the results between the Arab and nomad subsets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)154-160
Number of pages7
JournalOrthodontics and Craniofacial Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Cleft lip
  • Cleft palate
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Kuwait
  • Segregation analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics
  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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