(-)-Epicatechin protects hemorrhagic brain via synergistic Nrf2 pathways

Che Feng Chang, Suzy Cho, Jian Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: In the wake of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a devastating stroke with no effective treatment, hemoglobin/iron-induced oxidative injury leads to neuronal loss and poor neurologic outcomes. (-)-Epicatechin (EC), a brain-permeable flavanol that modulates redox/oxidative stress via the NF-E2–related factor (Nrf) 2 pathway, has been shown to be beneficial for vascular and cognitive function in humans. Here, we examined whether EC can reduce early brain injury in ICH mouse models and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: ICH was induced by injecting collagenase, autologous blood, or thrombin into mouse striatum. EC was administered orally at 3 h after ICH and then every 24 h. Lesion volume, neurologic deficits, brain edema, reactive oxygen species, and protein expression and activity were evaluated. Results: EC significantly reduced lesion volume and ameliorated neurologic deficits in both male and female ICH mice. Cell death and neuronal degeneration were decreased in the perihematomal area and were associated with reductions in caspase-3 activity and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB-1) level. These changes were accompanied by attenuation of oxidative insults, increased phase II enzyme expression, and increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation. Interestingly, in addition to providing neuroprotection via Nrf2 signaling, EC diminished heme oxygenase-1 induction and brain iron deposition via an Nrf2-independent pathway that downregulated ICH-induced activating protein-1 activation and decreased matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity, lipocalin-2 levels, iron-dependent cell death, and ferroptosis-related gene expression. Interpretation: Collectively, our data show that EC protects against ICH by activation of Nrf2-dependent and -independent pathways and may serve as a potential intervention for patients with ICH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)258-271
Number of pages14
JournalAnnals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Volume1
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2014

Fingerprint

Catechin
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Brain
Iron
Neurologic Manifestations
Cell Death
High Mobility Group Proteins
Heme Oxygenase-1
Brain Edema
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Collagenases
Thrombin
Caspase 3
Brain Injuries
Cognition
Nervous System
Oxidation-Reduction
Blood Vessels
Reactive Oxygen Species
Hemoglobins

Keywords

  • (-)-Epicatechin
  • ferroptosis
  • heme oxygenase-1
  • iron
  • NF-E2-related factor 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

(-)-Epicatechin protects hemorrhagic brain via synergistic Nrf2 pathways. / Chang, Che Feng; Cho, Suzy; Wang, Jian.

In: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, Vol. 1, No. 4, 01.04.2014, p. 258-271.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chang, Che Feng ; Cho, Suzy ; Wang, Jian. / (-)-Epicatechin protects hemorrhagic brain via synergistic Nrf2 pathways. In: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 2014 ; Vol. 1, No. 4. pp. 258-271.
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