Environmental influences on mouthing in children with lead intoxication

Nancy A. Madden, Dennis C. Russo, Michael F. Cataldo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The relationship of mouthing behavior to different environmental conditions was evaluated for three young children with asymptomatic lead poisoning. Specifically, the amount of mouthing; involvement with materials, adults, and other children; and noninvolvement were measured across daily sessions in three environments: group play, individual impoverished play, and individual enriched play, using an interval-recording system. For each of the children, the results indicated that mouthing was exhibited significantly more in the impoverished setting as compared to either group play or individual enriched environments. The results suggested that simple environmental enrichment may hold promise in the reduction of mouthing and pica. Further research evaluating procedures for reduction of mouthing and pica is suggested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-216
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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