Environmental and geographical factors contributing to watershed contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

Thaddeus K. Graczyk, Barry M. Evans, Clive Julian Shiff, Hubert J. Karreman, Jonathan A. Patz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum is a waterborne parasite which infects cattle and produces life-threatening zoonosis in people with impaired immune systems. Digital maps of 100-year floodplain boundaries, land use/cover, and livestock operations were used to select and characterize cattle farms in the floodplain area in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Over 21% of the cattle farms were located within 100-year floodplain boundaries. On average, a single farm comprised 12.8 ha of pasture (including buildings and farmyard) at risk of inundation. In all farms cattle had unlimited access to the creek. Manure samples collected from closed-in calf pens, cow/heifer yard runoff, and cattle paths through the creek were tested for C. parvum. On 64% of the farms (n = 50) at least one sample was positive for C. parvum, and 44% of the farms had oocysts in all manure samples. Concentration varied from 90 to 371 oocysts/g and was significantly higher (P<0.02) in calf samples than in manure from cow and cow/heifer. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)263-271
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume82
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2000

Fingerprint

Cryptosporidium parvum
Oocysts
Watersheds
Farms
Contamination
cattle
farm
watershed
Manure
Manures
floodplain
manure
digital map
Zoonoses
Livestock
immune system
Immune system
contamination
Runoff
livestock

Keywords

  • Cattle farms
  • Contamination
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Waterborne oocysts
  • Watershed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Environmental and geographical factors contributing to watershed contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. / Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Evans, Barry M.; Shiff, Clive Julian; Karreman, Hubert J.; Patz, Jonathan A.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 82, No. 3, 03.2000, p. 263-271.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Graczyk, Thaddeus K. ; Evans, Barry M. ; Shiff, Clive Julian ; Karreman, Hubert J. ; Patz, Jonathan A. / Environmental and geographical factors contributing to watershed contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. In: Environmental Research. 2000 ; Vol. 82, No. 3. pp. 263-271.
@article{79b52a25bab74a2ea82e716c6fb82f87,
title = "Environmental and geographical factors contributing to watershed contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts",
abstract = "Cryptosporidium parvum is a waterborne parasite which infects cattle and produces life-threatening zoonosis in people with impaired immune systems. Digital maps of 100-year floodplain boundaries, land use/cover, and livestock operations were used to select and characterize cattle farms in the floodplain area in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Over 21{\%} of the cattle farms were located within 100-year floodplain boundaries. On average, a single farm comprised 12.8 ha of pasture (including buildings and farmyard) at risk of inundation. In all farms cattle had unlimited access to the creek. Manure samples collected from closed-in calf pens, cow/heifer yard runoff, and cattle paths through the creek were tested for C. parvum. On 64{\%} of the farms (n = 50) at least one sample was positive for C. parvum, and 44{\%} of the farms had oocysts in all manure samples. Concentration varied from 90 to 371 oocysts/g and was significantly higher (P<0.02) in calf samples than in manure from cow and cow/heifer. (C) 2000 Academic Press.",
keywords = "Cattle farms, Contamination, Cryptosporidium parvum, Waterborne oocysts, Watershed",
author = "Graczyk, {Thaddeus K.} and Evans, {Barry M.} and Shiff, {Clive Julian} and Karreman, {Hubert J.} and Patz, {Jonathan A.}",
year = "2000",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1006/enrs.1999.4022",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "82",
pages = "263--271",
journal = "Environmental Research",
issn = "0013-9351",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental and geographical factors contributing to watershed contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

AU - Graczyk, Thaddeus K.

AU - Evans, Barry M.

AU - Shiff, Clive Julian

AU - Karreman, Hubert J.

AU - Patz, Jonathan A.

PY - 2000/3

Y1 - 2000/3

N2 - Cryptosporidium parvum is a waterborne parasite which infects cattle and produces life-threatening zoonosis in people with impaired immune systems. Digital maps of 100-year floodplain boundaries, land use/cover, and livestock operations were used to select and characterize cattle farms in the floodplain area in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Over 21% of the cattle farms were located within 100-year floodplain boundaries. On average, a single farm comprised 12.8 ha of pasture (including buildings and farmyard) at risk of inundation. In all farms cattle had unlimited access to the creek. Manure samples collected from closed-in calf pens, cow/heifer yard runoff, and cattle paths through the creek were tested for C. parvum. On 64% of the farms (n = 50) at least one sample was positive for C. parvum, and 44% of the farms had oocysts in all manure samples. Concentration varied from 90 to 371 oocysts/g and was significantly higher (P<0.02) in calf samples than in manure from cow and cow/heifer. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

AB - Cryptosporidium parvum is a waterborne parasite which infects cattle and produces life-threatening zoonosis in people with impaired immune systems. Digital maps of 100-year floodplain boundaries, land use/cover, and livestock operations were used to select and characterize cattle farms in the floodplain area in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Over 21% of the cattle farms were located within 100-year floodplain boundaries. On average, a single farm comprised 12.8 ha of pasture (including buildings and farmyard) at risk of inundation. In all farms cattle had unlimited access to the creek. Manure samples collected from closed-in calf pens, cow/heifer yard runoff, and cattle paths through the creek were tested for C. parvum. On 64% of the farms (n = 50) at least one sample was positive for C. parvum, and 44% of the farms had oocysts in all manure samples. Concentration varied from 90 to 371 oocysts/g and was significantly higher (P<0.02) in calf samples than in manure from cow and cow/heifer. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

KW - Cattle farms

KW - Contamination

KW - Cryptosporidium parvum

KW - Waterborne oocysts

KW - Watershed

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034025163&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034025163&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1006/enrs.1999.4022

DO - 10.1006/enrs.1999.4022

M3 - Article

C2 - 10702335

AN - SCOPUS:0034025163

VL - 82

SP - 263

EP - 271

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

IS - 3

ER -