Entrepreneurial, economic, and social well-being outcomes from an RCT of a youth entrepreneurship education intervention among native American adolescents

Lauren Tingey, Francene Larzelere, Novalene Goklish, Summer Rosenstock, Larissa Jennings Mayo-Wilson, Elliott Pablo, Warren Goklish, Ryan Grass, Feather Sprengeler, Sean Parker, Allison N. Ingalls, Mariddie Craig, Allison Barlow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Entrepreneurship education has demonstrated positive impacts in lowresource contexts. However, there is limited evidence of such programs evaluated among Native American (NA) youth in a rural reservation. Methods: A 2:1 randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of the Arrowhead Business Group (ABG) entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurship knowledge, economic empowerment, and social well-being among 394 NA youth. An intent to treat analysis using mixed effects regression models examined within and between study group differences from baseline to 24 months. An interaction term measured change in the intervention relative to change in the control. ABG participants were purposively sampled to conduct focus groups and in-depth interviews. Results: Significant intervention vs. control group improvements were sustained at 12 months for entrepreneurship knowledge and economic confidence/security. Significant within-group improvements were sustained for ABG participants at 24 months for connectedness to parents, school, and awareness of connectedness. Qualitative data endorses positive impacts on social well-being among ABG participants. Conclusion: Observed effects on entrepreneurship knowledge, economic empowerment, and connectedness, supplemented by the experiences and changes as described by the youth themselves, demonstrates how a strength-based youth entrepreneurship intervention focused on developing assets and resources may be an innovative approach to dually address health and economic disparities endured in Native American communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2383
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020


  • Adolescent
  • Economic empowerment
  • Entrepreneurship education
  • Native american
  • Qualitative
  • Randomized controlled trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Entrepreneurial, economic, and social well-being outcomes from an RCT of a youth entrepreneurship education intervention among native American adolescents'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this