Entomologic and demographic correlates of anti-tick saliva antibody in a prospective study of tick bite subjects in Westchester County, New York

Brian S Schwartz, R. B. Nadelman, D. Fish, J. E. Childs, G. Forseter, G. P. Wormser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We measured anti-tick saliva antibody (ATSA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole sonicated Ixodes dammini salivary glands as antigen in subjects with 1) a recent and confirmed I. dammini (n = 100) or Dermacentor variabilis bite (n = 3), 2) erythema migrans (n = 15), 3) late- stage Lyme disease (n = 4), and 4) normal controls without a history of tick bites (n = 5). Tick bite subjects had three ATSA determinations over approximately six weeks. On the first ATSA measurement at a mean ± SD of 18.5 ± 19.8 hr after removal of the tick, the subjects bitten by I. dammini had a mean ATSA optical density value (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.264 (0.223, 0.305); the corresponding value in controls was 0.142 (0.115, 0.169). There was no consistent change in ATSA levels in individuals with time. Multiple linear regression indicated that tick engorgement (P <0.01), subject age (higher ATSA with increasing age; P = 0.01), and subject sex (females > males; P = 0.03) were all independent predictors of ATSA levels. Logistic regression revealed that a bite by I. dammini that became engorged (defined as an engorgement index ≥ 3.4) was a risk factor for ATSA seropositivity (odds ratio [95% CI] = 6.2 [1.7, 21.8]). Finally, the ATSA test had a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.56 for a bite by I. dammini that became engorged. Overall, the data are further evidence that ATSA is a biologic marker of tick exposure, in that the engorgement index, a surrogate for tick saliva dose, was the strongest independent predictor of antibody response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-57
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume48
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1993

Fingerprint

Tick Bites
Ticks
Saliva
Demography
Prospective Studies
Antibodies
Ixodes
Bites and Stings
Dermacentor
Confidence Intervals
Lyme Disease
Erythema
Salivary Glands

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Entomologic and demographic correlates of anti-tick saliva antibody in a prospective study of tick bite subjects in Westchester County, New York. / Schwartz, Brian S; Nadelman, R. B.; Fish, D.; Childs, J. E.; Forseter, G.; Wormser, G. P.

In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1993, p. 50-57.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{aef268980d404dc8a0436429f6ee3935,
title = "Entomologic and demographic correlates of anti-tick saliva antibody in a prospective study of tick bite subjects in Westchester County, New York",
abstract = "We measured anti-tick saliva antibody (ATSA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole sonicated Ixodes dammini salivary glands as antigen in subjects with 1) a recent and confirmed I. dammini (n = 100) or Dermacentor variabilis bite (n = 3), 2) erythema migrans (n = 15), 3) late- stage Lyme disease (n = 4), and 4) normal controls without a history of tick bites (n = 5). Tick bite subjects had three ATSA determinations over approximately six weeks. On the first ATSA measurement at a mean ± SD of 18.5 ± 19.8 hr after removal of the tick, the subjects bitten by I. dammini had a mean ATSA optical density value (95{\%} confidence interval [CI]) of 0.264 (0.223, 0.305); the corresponding value in controls was 0.142 (0.115, 0.169). There was no consistent change in ATSA levels in individuals with time. Multiple linear regression indicated that tick engorgement (P <0.01), subject age (higher ATSA with increasing age; P = 0.01), and subject sex (females > males; P = 0.03) were all independent predictors of ATSA levels. Logistic regression revealed that a bite by I. dammini that became engorged (defined as an engorgement index ≥ 3.4) was a risk factor for ATSA seropositivity (odds ratio [95{\%} CI] = 6.2 [1.7, 21.8]). Finally, the ATSA test had a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.56 for a bite by I. dammini that became engorged. Overall, the data are further evidence that ATSA is a biologic marker of tick exposure, in that the engorgement index, a surrogate for tick saliva dose, was the strongest independent predictor of antibody response.",
author = "Schwartz, {Brian S} and Nadelman, {R. B.} and D. Fish and Childs, {J. E.} and G. Forseter and Wormser, {G. P.}",
year = "1993",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "48",
pages = "50--57",
journal = "American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene",
issn = "0002-9637",
publisher = "American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Entomologic and demographic correlates of anti-tick saliva antibody in a prospective study of tick bite subjects in Westchester County, New York

AU - Schwartz, Brian S

AU - Nadelman, R. B.

AU - Fish, D.

AU - Childs, J. E.

AU - Forseter, G.

AU - Wormser, G. P.

PY - 1993

Y1 - 1993

N2 - We measured anti-tick saliva antibody (ATSA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole sonicated Ixodes dammini salivary glands as antigen in subjects with 1) a recent and confirmed I. dammini (n = 100) or Dermacentor variabilis bite (n = 3), 2) erythema migrans (n = 15), 3) late- stage Lyme disease (n = 4), and 4) normal controls without a history of tick bites (n = 5). Tick bite subjects had three ATSA determinations over approximately six weeks. On the first ATSA measurement at a mean ± SD of 18.5 ± 19.8 hr after removal of the tick, the subjects bitten by I. dammini had a mean ATSA optical density value (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.264 (0.223, 0.305); the corresponding value in controls was 0.142 (0.115, 0.169). There was no consistent change in ATSA levels in individuals with time. Multiple linear regression indicated that tick engorgement (P <0.01), subject age (higher ATSA with increasing age; P = 0.01), and subject sex (females > males; P = 0.03) were all independent predictors of ATSA levels. Logistic regression revealed that a bite by I. dammini that became engorged (defined as an engorgement index ≥ 3.4) was a risk factor for ATSA seropositivity (odds ratio [95% CI] = 6.2 [1.7, 21.8]). Finally, the ATSA test had a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.56 for a bite by I. dammini that became engorged. Overall, the data are further evidence that ATSA is a biologic marker of tick exposure, in that the engorgement index, a surrogate for tick saliva dose, was the strongest independent predictor of antibody response.

AB - We measured anti-tick saliva antibody (ATSA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole sonicated Ixodes dammini salivary glands as antigen in subjects with 1) a recent and confirmed I. dammini (n = 100) or Dermacentor variabilis bite (n = 3), 2) erythema migrans (n = 15), 3) late- stage Lyme disease (n = 4), and 4) normal controls without a history of tick bites (n = 5). Tick bite subjects had three ATSA determinations over approximately six weeks. On the first ATSA measurement at a mean ± SD of 18.5 ± 19.8 hr after removal of the tick, the subjects bitten by I. dammini had a mean ATSA optical density value (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.264 (0.223, 0.305); the corresponding value in controls was 0.142 (0.115, 0.169). There was no consistent change in ATSA levels in individuals with time. Multiple linear regression indicated that tick engorgement (P <0.01), subject age (higher ATSA with increasing age; P = 0.01), and subject sex (females > males; P = 0.03) were all independent predictors of ATSA levels. Logistic regression revealed that a bite by I. dammini that became engorged (defined as an engorgement index ≥ 3.4) was a risk factor for ATSA seropositivity (odds ratio [95% CI] = 6.2 [1.7, 21.8]). Finally, the ATSA test had a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.56 for a bite by I. dammini that became engorged. Overall, the data are further evidence that ATSA is a biologic marker of tick exposure, in that the engorgement index, a surrogate for tick saliva dose, was the strongest independent predictor of antibody response.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027536352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027536352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8427388

AN - SCOPUS:0027536352

VL - 48

SP - 50

EP - 57

JO - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

JF - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

SN - 0002-9637

IS - 1

ER -