Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is one of the most remarkable advances in cancer therapy in the last several decades. More than 300 adoptive T-cell therapy trials are ongoing, which is a testament to the early success and hope engendered by this line of investigation. Despite the enthusiasm, application of CAR T-cell therapy to solid tumours has had little success, although positive outcomes are increasingly being reported for these diseases. In this Series paper, we discuss the short-term strategies to improve CAR T-cell therapy responses, particularly for solid tumours, by combining CAR T-cell therapy with radiotherapy through the use of careful monitoring and non-invasive imaging. Through the use of imaging, we can gain greater mechanistic insights into the cascade of events that must unfold to enable tumour eradication by CAR T-cell therapy.
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