Enhancing brain lesions during acute optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis may portend a higher relapse rate in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

G. Orman, K. Y. Wang, Y. Pekcevik, Carol Thompson, M. Mealy, Michael Levy, Izlem Izbudak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were evaluated for patterns of contrast enhancement (periependymal, cloudlike, leptomeningeal, and so forth). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the annualized relapse rate and disease duration between patients with and without contrast enhancement and with and without seropositivity. RESULTS: Brain MRIs of 77 patients were evaluated; 59 patients (10 males, 49 females) were scanned within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and were included in the analysis. Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. Having brain contrast enhancement of any type during an acute attack was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03) and marginally associated with shorter disease duration (P =.05). Having periependymal contrast enhancement was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with contrast enhancement during an acute relapse of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis are associated with increased annual relapse rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)949-953
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology
Volume38
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

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Transverse Myelitis
Neuromyelitis Optica
Optic Neuritis
Recurrence
Aquaporin 4
Brain
Blood-Brain Barrier
Neuroimaging
Antibodies
Demyelinating Diseases
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

@article{3c2c0c9525e048d69db9b4b97552ae95,
title = "Enhancing brain lesions during acute optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis may portend a higher relapse rate in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders",
abstract = "BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were evaluated for patterns of contrast enhancement (periependymal, cloudlike, leptomeningeal, and so forth). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the annualized relapse rate and disease duration between patients with and without contrast enhancement and with and without seropositivity. RESULTS: Brain MRIs of 77 patients were evaluated; 59 patients (10 males, 49 females) were scanned within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and were included in the analysis. Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. Having brain contrast enhancement of any type during an acute attack was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03) and marginally associated with shorter disease duration (P =.05). Having periependymal contrast enhancement was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with contrast enhancement during an acute relapse of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis are associated with increased annual relapse rates.",
author = "G. Orman and Wang, {K. Y.} and Y. Pekcevik and Carol Thompson and M. Mealy and Michael Levy and Izlem Izbudak",
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T1 - Enhancing brain lesions during acute optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis may portend a higher relapse rate in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

AU - Orman, G.

AU - Wang, K. Y.

AU - Pekcevik, Y.

AU - Thompson, Carol

AU - Mealy, M.

AU - Levy, Michael

AU - Izbudak, Izlem

PY - 2017/5/1

Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were evaluated for patterns of contrast enhancement (periependymal, cloudlike, leptomeningeal, and so forth). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the annualized relapse rate and disease duration between patients with and without contrast enhancement and with and without seropositivity. RESULTS: Brain MRIs of 77 patients were evaluated; 59 patients (10 males, 49 females) were scanned within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and were included in the analysis. Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. Having brain contrast enhancement of any type during an acute attack was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03) and marginally associated with shorter disease duration (P =.05). Having periependymal contrast enhancement was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with contrast enhancement during an acute relapse of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis are associated with increased annual relapse rates.

AB - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were evaluated for patterns of contrast enhancement (periependymal, cloudlike, leptomeningeal, and so forth). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the annualized relapse rate and disease duration between patients with and without contrast enhancement and with and without seropositivity. RESULTS: Brain MRIs of 77 patients were evaluated; 59 patients (10 males, 49 females) were scanned within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and were included in the analysis. Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. Having brain contrast enhancement of any type during an acute attack was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03) and marginally associated with shorter disease duration (P =.05). Having periependymal contrast enhancement was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates (P =.03). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with contrast enhancement during an acute relapse of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis are associated with increased annual relapse rates.

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