Enhanced Oxidative Stress and Other Potential Biomarkers for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetics: Beneficial Effects of the Nutraceutic Supplements

María J. Roig-Revert, Antonio Lleó-Pérez, Vicente Zanón-Moreno, Bárbara Vivar-Llopis, Juan Marín-Montiel, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Luis Alonso-Muñoz, Mara Albert-Fort, María I. López-Gálvez, David Galarreta-Mira, María F. García-Esparza, Carmen Galbis-Estrada, Carla Marco-Ramirez, Kian Shoaie-Nia, Silvia M. Sanz-González, Vicente Vila-Bou, Elena Bendala-Tufanisco, José J. García-Medina, Carlo Nucci, Roberto Gallego-PinazoJ. Fernando Arévalo, Maria D. Pinazo-Durán

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12 Scopus citations


We have studied the global risk of retinopathy in a Mediterranean population of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, according to clinical, biochemical, and lifestyle biomarkers. The effects of the oral supplementation containing antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) were also evaluated. Suitable participants were distributed into two main groups: (1) T2DMG (with retinopathy (+DR) or without retinopathy (-DR)) and (2) controls (CG). Participants were randomly assigned (+A/ω3) or not (-A/ω3) to the oral supplementation with a daily pill of Nutrof Omega (R) for 18 months. Data collected including demographics, anthropometrics, characteristics/lifestyle, ophthalmic examination (best corrected visual acuity, ocular fundus photographs, and retinal thickness as assessed by optical coherence tomography), and blood parameters (glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity) were registered, integrated, and statistically processed by the SPSS 15.0 program. Finally, 208 participants (130 diabetics (68 +DR/62 -DR) and 78 controls) completed the follow-up. Blood analyses confirmed that the T2DMG+DR patients had significantly higher oxidative stress (p < 0.05), inflammatory (p < 0.05), and vascular (p < 0.001) risk markers than the T2DMG-DR and the CG. Furthermore, the A/ω3 oral supplementation positively changed the baseline parameters, presumptively by inducing metabolic activation and ameliorating the ocular health after 18 months of supplementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number408180
JournalBioMed research international
StatePublished - 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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