Engineering bone grafts with enhanced bone marrow and native scaffolds

Ben P. Hung, Erin K. Salter, Josh Temple, Gerhard S. Mundinger, Emile N. Brown, Philip Brazio, Eduardo D. Rodriguez, Warren L. Grayson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-98
Number of pages12
JournalCells Tissues Organs
Volume198
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013

Keywords

  • Bone regeneration
  • Bone scaffold
  • Enhanced bone marrow
  • Mesenchymal stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology

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