Enduring mental health in the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area follow-up study

Kristin E. Schneider, Calliope Holingue, Kimberly B. Roth, William W. Eaton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of enduring mental health (EMH) and examine important correlates of EMH 23 years later in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-Up study. Methods: We estimated the prevalence of EMH among 964 adults with diagnostic data at all four study waves (1981–2004). Those with EMH were compared to those with any mental or behavioral disorder by demographic, psychosocial, and health characteristics. We used forward selection models to identify the most important predictors of EMH. Results: Twenty-six percent of participants met criteria for enduring mental health across the four waves. Neuroticism, GHQ-20 score, childhood conduct problems, female sex, maternal depression, and poor self-rated health were negatively associated with EMH. Conclusions: We identified several malleable factors associated with a decreased likelihood of enduring mental health. Interventions that target high neuroticism, childhood conduct problems, or maternal depression may increase the likelihood that children achieve EMH later in life. Identifying and treating other factors such as poor self-reported health and greater psychological distress may also keep sub-clinical symptoms from developing into a full mental or behavioral disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)997-1006
Number of pages10
JournalSocial psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 12 2019


  • Enduring mental health
  • Prospective cohort study
  • Psychiatric epidemiology
  • Resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Enduring mental health in the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area follow-up study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this