Background Endoscopic ultrasound-directed transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP; EDGE) is an alternative to enteroscopy- and laparoscopy-assisted ERCP in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass anatomy. Although short-term results are promising, the long-term outcomes are not known. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine the rates of long-term adverse events after EDGE, with a focus on rates of persistent gastrogastric or jejunogastric fistula; (2) to identify predictors of persistent fistula; (3) to assess the outcomes of endoscopic closure when persistent fistula is encountered. Methods This was a multicenter retrospective study involving 13 centers between February 2015 and March 2019. Adverse events were defined according to the ASGE lexicon. Persistent fistula was defined as an upper gastrointestinal series or esophagogastroduodenoscopy showing evidence of fistula. Results 178 patients (mean age 58 years, 79% women) underwent EDGE. Technical success was achieved in 98% of cases (175/178), with a mean procedure time of 92 minutes. Periprocedural adverse events occurred in 28 patients (15.7%; mild 10.1%, moderate 3.4%, severe 2.2%). The four severe adverse events were managed laparoscopically. Persistent fistula was diagnosed in 10% of those sent for objective testing (9/90). Following identification of a fistula, 5/9 patients underwent endoscopic closure procedures, which were successful in all cases. Conclusions The EDGE procedure is associated with high clinical success rates and an acceptable risk profile. Persistent fistulas after lumen-apposing stent removal are uncommon, but objective testing is recommended to identify their presence. When persistent fistulas are identified, endoscopic treatment is warranted, and should be successful in closing the fistula.
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