This article describes the diagnosis, staging, and therapeutic options for rectal cancer and the importance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) as a relatively new diagnostic modality. A case study is presented from initial diagnosis through surgery to illustrate how EUS and EUS-guided FNA influenced the treatment plan. Discussion focuses on rectal cancer and the importance of early detection through routine screening. The internationally accepted Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) staging classification system for rectal cancer is included, followed by a description of EUS and EUS-guided FNA with regard to accuracy in staging. In conclusion, the various stage-dependent treatment options available for rectal cancer that can be individualized based on the patient's medical problems and preferences are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing