Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, with 37,400 new cases and 6400 deaths estimated to occur in 1999. The epidemiology of endometrial cancer has been widely characterized; nevertheless, efforts continue to more precisely define risk factors for the disease. Accurate epidemiologic risk factor profiles or focused screening efforts may ultimately facilitate the primary prevention of endometrial cancer. Currently, standard management of women with endometrial cancer includes surgical exploration with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Uterine histopathologic characteristics and intraoperative findings continue to provide the primary indications for surgical staging in endometrial cancer. The addition of serum CA125 and selected imaging techniques (eg, transvaginal sonography with color Doppler and MR imaging) to the preoperative assessment may ultimately improve the sensitivity and specificity with which patients are selected for pathologic nodal evaluation. Various clinicopathologic factors have been evaluated as predictors of the clinical course of endometrial cancer and as selection criteria for patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy. Histologic measurement of the tumor microvessel density is a promising technique for identifying patients at high risk for recurrence. Although uterine papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium represents only 3% to 4% of endometrial cancer cases, it is of particular interest because of the aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis associated with this disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research