Purpose of Review: Obesity is a chronic relapsing disease that results in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Currently, surgery represents the most effective treatment. However, the advent of minimally invasive endoscopic bariatric therapy (EBT) has shifted the treatment paradigm to less invasive, cost-effective procedures with minimal complications and recovery time that are preferred by patients. In this review, we will describe current and future EBTs, focusing on outcomes and safety. Recent Findings: The endoscope has provided an incisionless portal into the gastrointestinal tract for placement of space-occupying devices and intraluminal procedures. EBTs are no longer solely manipulating anatomic alterations; instead, they aim to improve metabolic parameters such as glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and hepatic indices by targeting the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract. Summary: The endoscope has succeeded in facilitating clinically meaningful weight loss and improvement of metabolic parameters. Future, solutions to the obesity epidemic will likely entail genetic testing, evaluation of the microbiome, and delivery of personalized therapy, utilizing combination endoscopic modalities that change the anatomy and physiology of individual patients, with new targets such as the abnormal metabolic signal.
- Metabolic diseases
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