Enabling vendor independent photoacoustic imaging systems with asynchronous laser source

Yixuan Wu, Haichong K. Zhang, Emad M. Boctor

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Channel data acquisition, and synchronization between laser excitation and PA signal acquisition, are two fundamental hardware requirements for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Unfortunately, however, neither is equipped by most clinical ultrasound scanners. Therefore, less economical specialized research platforms are used in general, which hinders a smooth clinical transition of PA imaging. In previous studies, we have proposed an algorithm to achieve PA imaging using ultrasound post-beamformed (USPB) RF data instead of channel data. This work focuses on enabling clinical ultrasound scanners to implement PA imaging, without requiring synchronization between the laser excitation and PA signal acquisition. Laser synchronization is inherently consisted of two aspects: frequency and phase information. We synchronize without communicating the laser and the ultrasound scanner by investigating USPB images of a point-target phantom in two steps. First, frequency information is estimated by solving a nonlinear optimization problem, under the assumption that the segmented wave-front can only be beamformed into a single spot when synchronization is achieved. Second, after making frequencies of two systems identical, phase delay is estimated by optimizing the image quality while varying phase value. The proposed method is validated through simulation, by manually adding both frequency and phase errors, then applying the proposed algorithm to correct errors and reconstruct PA images. Compared with the ground truth, simulation results indicate that the remaining errors in frequency correction and phase correction are 0.28% and 2.34%, respectively, which affirm the potential of overcoming hardware barriers on PA imaging through software solution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotons Plus Ultrasound
Subtitle of host publicationImaging and Sensing 2018
EditorsLihong V. Wang, Alexander A. Oraevsky
ISBN (Electronic)9781510614734
StatePublished - 2018
EventPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2018 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: Jan 28 2018Feb 1 2018

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2018
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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