Empirical and theoretical investigation of the noise performance of indirect detection, active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) for diagnostic radiology

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, J. M. Boudry, I. A. Cunningham

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230 Scopus citations


Noise properties of active matrix, flat panel imagers under conditions relevant to diagnostic radiology are investigated. These studies focus on imagers based upon arrays with pixels incorporating a discrete photodiode coupled to a thin-film transistor, both fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon. These optically sensitive arrays are operated with an overlying x-ray converter to allow indirect detection of incident x rays. External electronics, including gate driver circuits and preamplification circuits, are also required to operate the arrays. A theoretical model describing the signal and noise transfer properties of the imagers trader conditions relevant to diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and mammography is developed. This frequency-dependent model is based upon a cascaded systems analysis wherein the imager is conceptually divided into a series of stages having intrinsic gain and spreading properties. Predictions from the model are compared with x-ray sensitivity and noise measurements obtained from individual pixels from an imager with a pixel format of 1536 x 1920 pixels at a pixel pitch of 127 μm. The model is shown to be in excellent agreement with measurements obtained with diagnostic x rays using various phosphor screens. The model is used to explore the potential performance of existing and hypothetical imagers for application in radiography, fluoroscopy, and mammography as a function of exposure, additive noise, and fill factor. These theoretical predictions suggest that imagers of this general design incorporating a Cs1:T1 intensifying screen can be optimized to provide detective quantum efficiency (DQE) superior to existing screen-film and storage phosphor systems for general radiography and mammography. For fluoroscopy, the model predicts that with further optimization of a-Si:H imagers, DQE performance approaching that of the best x-ray image intensifier systems may be possible. The results of this analysis suggest strategies for future improvements of this imaging technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-89
Number of pages19
JournalMedical physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • active matrix flat-panel imager
  • amorphous silicon
  • detective quantum efficiency
  • digital x-ray imaging
  • quantum accounting diagram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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