Emerging Viral Infections and Their Impact on the Global Burden of Neurological Disease

Laura S. Muñoz, Maria A. Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo-Villamizar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions. In the past five decades, vector-borne viruses primarily transmitted by arthropods, or arboviruses, have been responsible for epidemics with a high burden of neurological disease, like the 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic in the Americas. Viruses that have become neurovirulent for humans after geographical expansion include West Nile, Dengue, and Zika viruses. Factors such as animal migration, disruption of ecological niches, and cross-species contact have caused old viruses to reappear and cause neurological disease, as is the case of Ebola virus. In addition to these biological challenges, current preventive strategies, vaccination, and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches remain limited. We review the clinical-virological features and global impact of the most relevant emerging viral infections of the nervous system as they are projected over the 21st century.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-175
Number of pages13
JournalSeminars in Neurology
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Fingerprint

Virus Diseases
Viruses
Nervous System
Animal Migration
Ebolavirus
Arboviruses
West Nile virus
Dengue Virus
Arthropods
RNA Viruses
Central Nervous System Diseases
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Encephalitis
Vaccination
Public Health
Morbidity
Mortality
Infection
Global Burden of Disease
Zika Virus

Keywords

  • emerging viral infection
  • encephalitis
  • myelitis
  • viral diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Emerging Viral Infections and Their Impact on the Global Burden of Neurological Disease. / Muñoz, Laura S.; Garcia, Maria A.; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza; Parra, Beatriz; Pardo-Villamizar, Carlos A.

In: Seminars in Neurology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 01.04.2018, p. 163-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Muñoz, Laura S. ; Garcia, Maria A. ; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza ; Parra, Beatriz ; Pardo-Villamizar, Carlos A. / Emerging Viral Infections and Their Impact on the Global Burden of Neurological Disease. In: Seminars in Neurology. 2018 ; Vol. 38, No. 2. pp. 163-175.
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