Emerging Treatments for Choroidal Metastases

Connie J. Chen, Allison N. McCoy, Julie Brahmer, James T. Handa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


It has been over a century since Perls described the first case of choroidal metastasis. For the next six decades only 230 cases were described in the literature. Today, however, ocular metastasis is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy. Thanks to recent advances in treatment options for metastatic disease, patients are living longer, and choroidal metastases will become an increasingly important issue for oncologists and ophthalmologists alike. We summarize the current knowledge of choroidal metastases and examine their emerging systemic and local therapies. Targeted therapies for metastatic lung, breast, and colon cancer-the most common causes of choroidal metastases-are reviewed in detail with the goal of identifying the most effective treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)511-521
Number of pages11
JournalSurvey of ophthalmology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Choroidal metastases
  • Ocular metastases
  • Targeted therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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