Emerging human papillomavirus vaccines

Barbara Ma, Bharat Maraj, Nam Phuong Tran, Jayne Knoff, Alexander Chen, Ronald D. Alvarez, Chien Fu Hung, T. C. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Introduction: Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor of cervical, anogenital, and a subset of head and neck cancers has stimulated the development of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines to control HPV-associated malignancies. Excitement has been generated by the commercialization of two preventive L1-based vaccines, which use HPV virus-like particles (VLPs) to generate capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, factors such as high cost and requirement for cold chain have prevented widespread implementation where they are needed most. Areas covered: Next generation preventive HPV vaccine candidates have focused on cost-effective stable alternatives and generating broader protection via targeting multivalent L1 VLPs, L2 capsid protein, and chimeric L1/L2 VLPs. Therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates have focused on enhancing T cell-mediated killing of HPV-transformed tumor cells, which constitutively express HPV-encoded proteins, E6 and E7. Several therapeutic HPV vaccines are in clinical trials. Expert opinion: Although progress is being made, cost remains an issue inhibiting the use of preventive HPV vaccines in countries that carry the majority of the cervical cancer burden. In addition, progression of therapeutic HPV vaccines through clinical trials may require combination strategies employing different therapeutic modalities. As research in the development of HPV vaccines continues, we may generate effective strategies to control HPV-associated malignancies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)469-492
Number of pages24
JournalExpert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2012


  • Clinical trials
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Immunotherapy
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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    Ma, B., Maraj, B., Tran, N. P., Knoff, J., Chen, A., Alvarez, R. D., Hung, C. F., & Wu, T. C. (2012). Emerging human papillomavirus vaccines. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs, 17(4), 469-492. https://doi.org/10.1517/14728214.2012.744393