Emergency medical services systems in the United States and China: a developmental comparison.

Frederick M. Burkle, X. Zhang, W. Partick, E. Kalinowski, Z. Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


International emergency medical services (EMS) consultation requires many sensitivities to cross-cultural issues. Contemporary EMS models in developed countries have, by necessity, a systems framework. This study compares evolving EMS systems in the United States and China. It is concluded, that, no matter what the potential and cultural differences might be, a systems framework inherently will emerge in EMS development. As such, the EMS components recognized often will expose an evolving systems approach with more similarities than differences and can reveal strategies for improvement. Providing a developmental comparison process is a necessary first phase in analysis of a country's systems development or restructuring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-251
Number of pages8
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1994
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this