Emergency care of traumatic brain injuries in Pakistan: A multicenter study

Junaid Ahmad Bhatti, Kent A Stevens, Muhammad Umer Mir, Adnan A. Hyder, Junaid Razzak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: This study assessed factors associated with emergency care outcomes and out-of-pocket treatment costs in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in Pakistan. Methods: Data on TBI patients were extracted from a four-month surveillance study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of seven large teaching hospitals. Emergency care access to physicians and imaging facilities were compared with respect to ED outcomes (discharged, admitted or dead). Out-of-pocket treatment costs (in United States dollars [USD]) were compared among different patient strata. Results: ED outcomes were available for 1,787 TBI patients. Of them, most were males (79%), aged

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberS12
JournalBMC Emergency Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 11 2015



  • Access to care
  • Economic costs
  • Pakistan
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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