Embryo catheter loading and embryo culture techniques: Results of a worldwide web-based survey

Mindy S. Christianson, Yulian Zhao, Gon Shoham, Irit Granot, Anat Safran, Ayatallah Khafagy, Milton Leong, Zeev Shoham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Purpose: To identify trends in embryo catheter loading and embryo culture techniques performed worldwide. Methods: A retrospective evaluation using the results of a web-based survey, (IVFWorldwide ( www.IVF-worldwide.com ), was performed. Results: Responses from 265 centers in 71 countries were obtained. Most centers (97 %) prefered a catheter with its orifice on top, with only 3 % preferring a catheter with the orifice on its side; 41 % preferred a catheter marked for clear ultrasound view. The most commonly-reported methods of embryo loading were medium-air-embryo-airmedium (42 %), medium in catheter with embryo at end (20 %) and medium-air-embryo (15 %). In 68 % of centers the final volume of the catheter was up to 0.3 ml, with only 19 % using 0.3-0.5 ml and 1 % using 0.5-0.7 ml. Using reduced oxygen concentrations for embryo culture was divided between those who used it in combination with the twogas system (34 %) and those who did not use it at all (39 %); 24 % reported using a three-gas system. Most clinics using reduced oxygen concentrations used it throughout the entire culture period. Half of centers (51 %) reported using reduced oxygen concentrations for the entire IVF population while 6 % reserved it only for blastocyst transfer. The use of sequential media was highly dominant with 40 % reporting its use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1029-1036
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Assisted reproductive techniques
  • Embryo culture
  • Embryo transfer
  • In vitro fertilization
  • Infertility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics(clinical)


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