Electronic Bypass for Diabetes: Optimization of Stimulation Parameters and Mechanisms of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

Yan Dong, Jieyun Yin, Yiling Zhang, Jiande D.Z. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) has been proposed for treating diabetes; however, its parameters need to be further systematically optimized. This study aimed to optimize the parameters of IES and investigate its possible mechanisms involving glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats were chronically implanted with a pair of bipolar electrodes at the duodenum for IES. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in a number of sessions with IES using different parameters and biphasic charge-balanced waveforms to derive the best values for train on-time, pulse frequency, and pulse width. Incretin hormones such as GLP-1 were assessed and the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin 9-39 was used to assess the role of GLP-1 in the ameliorating effect of IES on hyperglycemia. Results: The most effective IES parameters in reducing blood glucose (BG) during the OGTT were derived: 1.2 sec on, 0.3 sec off, 80 Hz, 3 msec. IES with these parameters reduced BG level by at least 29% from 15 min to 180 min (p < 0.05 for all points, N = 10). IES with these stimulation parameters increased plasma GLP-1 level at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) level at 30 min (N = 8). Exendin 9-39 blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on BG (p > 0.05, IES + Exendin 9-39 vs. sham-IES, N = 8). Conclusion: IES with the most effective parameters derived in this study improves hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. The ameliorating effect of IES on hyperglycemia is attributed to the enhanced release of GLP-1. IES has great potential for treating diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Glucagon like peptide-1
  • hyperglycemia
  • intestinal electrical stimulation
  • parameters
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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