Electroanatomic mapping of the left ventricle in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction with magnetic resonance-based catheter tracking

Srinivas R. Dukkipati, Richard Mallozzi, Ehud J. Schmidt, Godtfred Holmvang, Andre D'Avila, Renee Guhde, Robert D. Darrow, Glenn Scott Slavin, Maggie Fung, Zachary Malchano, Greg Kampa, Jeremy D. Dando, Christina McPherson, Thomas K. Foo, Jeremy N. Ruskin, Charles L. Dumoulin, Vivek Y. Reddy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background - X-ray fluoroscopy constitutes the fundamental imaging modality for catheter visualization during interven-tional electrophysiology procedures. The minimal tissue discriminative capability of fluoroscopy is mitigated in part by the use of electroanatomic mapping systems and enhanced by the integration of preacquired 3-dimensional imaging of the heart with computed tomographic or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A more ideal paradigm might be to use intraprocedural MR imaging to directly image and guide catheter mapping procedures. Methods and Results - An MR imaging-based electroanatomic mapping system was designed to assess the feasibility of navigating catheters to the left ventricle in vivo using MR tracking of microcoils incorporated into the catheters, measuring intracardiac ventricular electrograms, and integrating this information with 3-dimensional MR angiography and myocardial delayed enhancement images to allow ventricular substrate mapping. In all animals (4 normal, and 10 chronically infarcted swine), after transseptal puncture under fluoroscopic guidance, catheters were successfully navigated to the left ventricle with MR tracking (13 to 15 frames per second) by both transseptal and retrograde aortic approaches. Electrogram artifacts related to the MR imaging gradient pulses were successfully removed with analog and digital signal processing. In all animals, it was possible to map the entire left ventricle and to project electrogram voltage amplitude maps to identify the scarred myocardium. Conclusions - It is possible to use MR tracking to navigate catheters to the left ventricle, to measure electrogram activity, and to render accurate 3-dimensional voltage maps in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction, completely in the MR imaging environment. Myocardial delayed enhancement guidance provided dense sampling of the proximity of the infarct and accurate localization of complex infarcts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)853-862
Number of pages10
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 19 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Catheter ablation
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Mapping
  • Myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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